biology assessment: chapter six: cellular respiration

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Primarily, cellular respiration serves to _____.

make ATP to power the cell's activities

In the first stage of cellular respiration, two molecules of pyruvate are produced. In the remaining stages, a number of products are produced, including _____. This process occurs in the _____.

CO2, mitochondria

The electron transport chain is a series of electron carrier molecules. In eukaryotes, where can this structure be found?

mitochondria

During glycolysis, a molecule of glucose is partially oxidized. What is the net gain of ATP and NADH for each molecule?

2 ATP and 2 NADH

Sodium fluoroacetate, or compound 1080, is a rodent poison that probably disrupts the citric acid cycle. In the body, the molecule is converted to a compound that prevents citrate from being used. Initially, when first exposed to this molecule, what is the theoretical energy produced per glucose molecule through the process of cellular respiration?

2 ATP 4 NADH, 0 FADH2

The electron transport chain is, in essence, a series of redox reactions that conclude cellular respiration. During these redox reactions, _____

NAD+ is reduced, which then oxidizes an electron acceptor in the electron transport chain

What is the fate of the electrons that are stripped from glucose during cellular respiration?

They are used to form water.

What is the purpose of embedding the electron transport chain in the membrane of an organism?

The membrane is impermeable to H+

Cellular respiration completely breaks down a glucose molecule through glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. However, these two processes yield only a few ATPs. The majority of the energy the cell derives from glucose is _____.

found in NADH and FADH2

A muscle cell deprived of molecular oxygen will convert glucose to lactic acid to _____.

recycle NADH through fermentation

Fat is the most efficient molecule for long-term energy storage even compared to carbohydrates because _____.

with their numerous hydrogen atoms, fats provide an abundant source of high-energy electrons

Using the ATP generated during cellular respiration, the intermediates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle can be siphoned off and used _____.

to power the biosynthesis of amino acids, fats, and sugars

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