Memory

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Terms from Myers 7e Chapter 9 and notes from class on Memory

memory

persistence of learning over time; involves encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

flashbulb memory

clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

encoding

the processing of information into the memory system--for example, by extracting meaning

storage

the retention of encoded information over time

retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage

sensory memory

the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system

short-term memory (STM)

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as 7 digits of phone number while dialing

long-term memory (LTM)

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information, often of space, time, and frequency (e.g. where you parked your car or when you got up this morning)

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort (e.g. remembering vocabulary words for Spanish class)

rehearsal

the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or encode it for storage

next-in-line effect

tendency to forget what was said by the person immediately before you during introductions or saying words

Hermann Ebbinghaus

early memory researcher who taught himself lists of nonsense syllables to systematically test his recall

spacing effect

tendency for distributed practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the first and last items in a list

primacy effects

better recall of information presented at the beginning of a list or class

recency effects

advantage in recall of information just recently presented (compared to information presented earlier)

Von Restorff effect

tendency to remember distinctive stimuli better than less distinctive stimuli; also sometimes called semantic distinctiveness

visual encoding

encoding of (either imagined or viewed) picture images

acoustic encoding

the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

semantic encoding

encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

imagery

mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

mnemonics

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

loci

type of mnemonic that exploits the ease with which we recall layouts of familiar locations; remembering items on a list by visualizing them placed in familiar locations

peg-word system

mnemonic device used to recall items in a list by picking a rhyming word to match the number, then visualizing the item with that rhyme word

levels of processing model

model of memory storage which suggests that we better remember information that we spend more time and cognitive effort processing (e.g. deep v. shallow processing)

self-reference effect

phenomenon whereby we better remember information perceived to be relevant to ourselves

chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

echoic memory

momentary sensory memory of auditory information; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled for 3 or 4 seconds

iconic memory

momentary sensory memory of visuals images; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

George Miller

wrote the book, "The Magical Number 7 +/- 2," describing the capacity of short term memory

long-term potentiation (LTP)

an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation; believed to be the neural basis for learning and memory

amnesia

loss of memory

anterograde amnesia

inability to form new memories, often as a result of damage to the hippocampus or surrounding areas

retrograde amnesia

memory loss for events and learning that occured prior to the memory-disrupting injury

implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection; includes procedural memory and classically conditioned responses

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously known and "declare" (also called declarative memory)

hippocampus

a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage

recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank question (with no word bank)

recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test

relearning

a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

priming

a retrieval cue; the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

mood-congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

state-dependent memory

tendency to better recall information learned during an altered state of consciousness when again in that altered state of consciousness (e.g. an alcoholic recalling the previous night's events only when drinking again)

proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information; what you learned before interferes with your ability to recall more recently learned info

retroactive interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information; what you learned recently interferes with your ability to recall information learned before

repression

Freudian notion that we may unconsciously suppress memories of anxiety-arousing events or realities as a defense mechanism

misinformation effect

incorporating misleading or inaccurate information into one's memory of an event

Elizabeth Loftus

psychologist famous for her research on memory construction & false memories

source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (contributes to false memories)

Forgetting Curve

the pattern of storage decay descibed by Ebbinghaus; retention of information drops off sharply, then stabilizes, as time passes after learning

elaborative rehearsal

a memorization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory, as opposed to simply repeating the information over & over

prospective memory

remembering to do things in the future

metacognition

"Thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task

procedural memory

A type of implicit long-term memory of how to perform different actions and skills. Essentially, it is the memory of how to do certain things.

deep processing

Encoding through meaningful interaction with the content. Often, encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention

shallow processing

Encoding on a basic level. Often based on the structure or appearance of words.

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