AP world history midterm

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Hunting and gathering societies

organize rather small groups into political units

the paleolithic age refers to

the period in which simple stone tools were developed

a characteristic of the human species before the advent of civilization

the ability to spread to various geographic settings and climate zones

the development of agriculture cause important changes in all the following except

the tendency to believe in many gods

The neolithic revolution occurred first in

the middle east

why did the original inhabitants of australia not develop agriculture?

They were too isolated to learn of developments elsewhere until recently

once developed, metal tools were preferred over stone tools for all the following reasons except

they were easier for ordinary people to make at home

a society is almost certainly a civilization if

it practices sedentary agriculture

the development of writing

helps explain why governments could become more formal and bureaucratic

the earliest know writing in a civilization first developed in

the middle east

one difference between classical civilizations and river valley civilizations was that in classical civilizations

political organization was more elaborate

one difference between classical China and the earlier Huanghe river valley civilization was that

human sacrifices were suppressed

"dynasty" in Chinese history was

a family that passed the imperial title from generation to generation

The "Son of heaven" concept was designed to promote all of the following except:

priests' control over the state

the Qin dynasty differed from the Zhou in that

it was more centralized

all of the following constituted a function of government in Han China except

schools for peasant boys

chinese views on nature emphasized

harmony and balance

Which of the following is a confucian belief

a good society has a heirarchy in both family and state

ceremony became an important part if upper-class chinese life beacuse

the chinese believed it would help unify society and prevent greed

Daoists would agree with Confucianists on all the following except

the importance of political activity

Whic of the following does not help to explain why India was more often invaded than China

hostility to warfare

The aryan conquerers brought to india

distinctive religious ideas

the mauryan dynasty differed from the gupta dynasty in that

it ruled larger territory

India's political tradition

stressed teh importance of regional and local units

The Indian caste system served to an extent as a politcal institution by

enforcing rules about social behavior

Confucian and Hindu values

helped justify and preserve social inequality

Hindu ethics involved

emphasis on an individual carrying out the obligations of life

Hinduism urged that

all living creatures participated in divine essence

Buddhism differed from hinduism by not believing

in the caste system

"Nirvana" meants

full union with the divine essence

If the greek genius was politics, then the roman genius was

engineering

the two mediterranean powers fighting during the punic wars were

Carthage and Rome

Compared to modern american ideas about democracy, athenian democracy was distinctive in

urging that all citizens participate directly in lawmaking and policymaking

Greek politics resembled Indian politics in

the tendency of regional fragmentation

from a confucian viewpoint, the roman empire might have been criticized for putting too much emphasis on

laws rather than trained officials

republican romans and democratic athens would have agreed that all of the following were politically important except

division of powers within the state

the senate of republican rome particularily represented

the landed aristocracy

roman emperors tried to prevent population disorders by

organizing food supplies and distribution

the roman empire

tolerated local political and religious diversity

the socratic method emphasized the importance of

questioning

the first kingdoms in eastern africa below the Sahara showed the influence of

Egypt and Hellenism

nomadic invaders often had military advantages over armies of empires because

they were more skilled as horsemen

by 600 c.e and early civilizations was beginning to take shape in

Central America

Japan developed a religion called

Shintoism

The end of the gupta empire differed from the decline of Rome in that it did not involve

the introduction of a new religion for the majority

which of the following best survived the Hun Invasions of India?

Hindu beliefs

One important early symptom of Rome's decline was

the drop in population due to a series of plagues

the "lessons" of late Han china and the late Roman Empire are that the decline of civilization, whether temporary or permanent

is not simple the result of attack of outside invaders

The eastern portion of the Roman Empire experienced less decline than the west for all of the following reasons except

the east resisted the spread of christianity

after 200. c.e an increasing number of people in Asia, Europe, and North Africa began to adapt to faiths characterized by

monotheism

Islam means

submission

The arabic camel nomads were referred to as

Bedouin

Which of the following cultures found in the Arabian peninsula was most significant in shaping the development of Islam?

Bedouin

Which of the following regions was Not affected by Islam during its early history ( prior to 750 c.e)

South America

Which of the following statements concerning bedouin society is NOT accurate

Clans were commonly congregated together in larger tribal groupings

Leader of Bedouin clans were called

shaykhs

Which of the following groups was Not a component of bedouin society

artisans

Which of the following statements about interclan relationships is most accurate

inter-clan violence over control of water and pasturage was common

What was the result of inter-clan rivalries

it tended to weaken the bedouin in comparison to neighboring people and empires

what clan was responsible for the founding of Mecca?

Ummayyad

Which of the following is NOT a reason for the decline of the abbasid dynasty by the ninth century A.D.?

the collapse of cities in the islamic heartland

which of the following groups did not revolt against the abbasid rule?

slaves

what was the result of the civil wars following the death of al-rashid

succession disputes led to the build up of personal armies, often of slave soldiers

which of the following statements concerning the mercenaries armies of the later abbasid era is NOT accurate

despite their tendency toward random violence, the loyally defended the abbasid caliphs

what accounts for the disruption of the agricultural economy of the abbasid empire

spiraling taxation, the destruction of the irrigation works and pillaging by mercenary armies led to destruction of and abandonment of many villages

what changes occurred during the abbasid period with respect to women

the establishment of the harem

between 800-1500 as the frequency and intensity of contact with the outside world increased, which of the following had the most significant impact on sub-saharan africa?

the arrival of Islam

What was one major difference between african civilization and other post classical societies?

african civilizations were built somewhat less clearly on prior precedent than was the case in other post-classical societies

which of the following statements concerning political and religious universality in africa is most accurate?

neither universal states nor religion characterize africa but both christianity and islam did find adherents

african societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration o political power and authority were referred to as

stateless

what was the function of secret societies in africa?

because their membership cut across lineage divisions, they acted to maintain stability within the community and diminish clan feuds

which of the following statements best describes the indigenous religion of much of sub-saharan africa

animistic religion, belief in the power of natural forces personified deities

which of the following statements concerning africa's economy is untrue

much of the region lacked a market economy and was based on self-sufficient agricultural units

Which of the following was not a belief shared by practitioners of many indigenous african religions

a moral code based on a supreme god

what region of africa was first converted to islam by 700 c.e

north africa

the puritanical reform movements of the almovorads and almohadis arose among what groups of people in africa

the berbers, native desert dwellers of north africa

which of the following is most correctly seen as a direct continuation of the roman empire?

Byzantine empire

the byzantine empire lasted approzimately

500 - 1450

which of the following territories was always part of the byzantine empire?

balkan peninsula

the significance of the byzantine empire included all the following except

the empire's conquest of the ottoman empire and its inclusion of of all the middle east

what was the most important "stepchild" of the byzantine empire?

russia

which of the following does not represent a similarity between the spread of civilization in eastern and western europe?

northern kingdom dominated both areas

which of the following represents a difference between the spread of civilization in eastern and western europe

they produced different versions of christianity, culturally as well and organizationally separate

the capital of the byzantine empire and its commercial center was located at

constantinople

the emperor responsible for a surge in construction in constantinople was

constantine

what was the difference in the military organization of Byzantine and western roman empires?

the byzantine empire recruited armies from the middle east

the post classical period in western history between the fall of roman empire and the 15th century is referred to as

middle ages

which of the following statements concerning the impact of christianity on polytheistic religion in western europe is most accurate

the process of conversion produced a religious blend in which beliefs in magic and supernatural spirits coexisted with christianity

following the fall of rome, where was the center of the post-classical west

the central plains in northern europe

who were the scandinavian invaders who disrupted the development of durable political institutions in the medieval west until the 10th century

vikings

which of the following statements concerning intellectual activity of the medieval west prior to the 8th century

with the few literate people concentrated in monasteries, little was achieved other than copying older manuscripts

the system that was described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers was called

manorialism

agricultural laborers under the jurisdiction of the aristocratic landowners were called

serfs

which of the following statements concerning the agricultural laborers of the medieval west is not true

they could be bought and sold by their landlors

the moldboard was

a technological innovation, a plow that allowed deeper turning of the soil

which of the following statements about the manorial system is not true

it was technologically unsophisticated

during the post classical period, societies in the americas

remained entirely separate from those of the old west

which of the following was not characteristic of american civilization during the post classical period

monotheistic practices

the northern nomadic people who entered central mexico following the decline of teotihuacan were the

toltecs

the toltec capital was established at

Tula

what was the relationship between the toltecs and their predecessors in central mexico

the toltecs adopted many cultural features from their predecessors to which they added a strong military ethic and human sacrifice

how did aztecs view the cultural achievements of the toltecs

as the givers of civilization

the toltec empire lasted until

1150

after the sack of tula, the center of population and political power in mexico shifted to

the valley of mexico and the shores of chain of lakes in that basin

the people who succeeded the toltecs were the

aztecs

around what year did the aztecs migrate to the central valley of mexico?

1325

the period of political disorder and chaotic warfare that followed the Qin-han era is referred to as the

era of division

what was the capital of the southern song dynasty

hangzhou

which of the following statements concerning urbanization in china during the tang song era is most accurate

chinese urbanization mushroomed during the the tang-song era with higher proportion of population living in cities

the dynasty that ended the period of political chaos after the fall of the qin-han was the

Sui

the made possible the rapid revival of empire under the Tang?

the rebuilding of the bureaucracy using confucian ideology

the man responsible for the creation of the sui dynasty was

Wendi

which kingdom was conquered by Wendi in 589?

Chen

what made the reunification of China under the first sui emperor possible?

the support of the nomadic warrior elite

what was the primary reform enacted during the reign of the first sui emperor

the creation of graineries to relieve the threat of famine

unlike his father, the second sui emperor favored

the confucian scholar gentry class

what regions of Asia were most drawn to chinese cultural and political models

the agrarian societies in the east and south

when did the chinese influence on japan peak

7th and 8th century b.c.e.

what is the name of the nature spirits of japan?

Kami

what religion played a key role in the transmission of chinese civilization to japan

Buddhism

in which of the following japanese periods was chinese cultural influence most significant?

Taika

what were the reforms enacted in 646 that intended to thoroughly incorporate chinese culture and political structure in japanese society

taika

what was the central purpose of the reforms of 646 in japan

to remake the japanese monarch into an absolutist chines-style emperor

what group so threatened the security of the japanese imperial family that they in the 8th century moved to heian?

buddhist monks

what was the immediate impact of the imperial move to heian?

the aristocracy was restored to counterbalance the power of the buddhist monasteries and took over most of the positions in the central government

what was the military organization of the heian government in japan

local members of the aristocracy were ordered to organize militia forces

during what period did the nomads of central asia impact the other global civilizations of the eastern hemispheres?

1200 to 1400

in most ways, the mongols epitomized what type of society and culture?

nomadic

what was the basic unit of mongol society

the tribe

which of the following statements concerning leadership in mongol society is most correct

leaders were elected by free males and held office for as long as they could keep it

in the early 12th century, the qin kingdom of northern china was defeated by a mongol confederation under teh leadership of

kublai khan

which of the following statements concerning chiggis khan's early life is most accurate?

following his father's death, he was abandoned by many followers and captured by a rival tribe

chinggis khan was elected khagan (supreme ruler) of the mongol tribes in what year

1206

the mongol military forces were

entirely calvary

mongol armies were divided into units called

tumens

which of the following weapons was NOT part of the arsenal of the mongol army under chingiss khan

chain mail

which of the following was not a symptom of the decline in the arabic caliphate by 1400

the decline of the sufis

by what date had the arabs been virtually excluded from european trade

1100

which of the following statements concerning arab trade after 1100 is most accurate

although arabic trade was reduced, muslims remained active in world markets

which of the following statements about the political fragmentation of the arabic world in the 1400s is the most accurate

after the fall of the abbasid caliphate, the emerging ottoman empire soon mastered most of the lands of the old caliphate plus the byzantine corner

which of the following statements concerning the ottoman empire is most accurate

the expansionist power of the ottoman empire was very real but the focus was on conquest and administration overshadowed wider commercial ambitions

what area represented a new conquest for the ottoman empire in the late 1400s?

southeastern europe

which of the following statements concerning teh ottoman empire is most accurate

turkish rulers did not promote maritime trade as vigorously as the arabs

which of the following civilizations first attempted to fill the commercial vacuum created by the decline in arabic trade

china

what chinese dynasty succeeded the mongol yuan dynasty in china

Ming

what was the innovation launched by the ming dynasty?

mounting huge state sponsored trading expeditions throughout asia and beyond

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