pyruvate is formed
in the cytosol
In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions
provide the energy to establish the proton gradient
Which of the following is a true distinction between fermentation and cellular respiration?
NADH is oxidized by the electron transport chain only in respiration
Most of the energy that enters electron transport enters as
FADH2 and NADH
In the presence of a metabolic poison that specifically and completely inhibits the function of mitochondrial ATP synthase, which of the following would you expect?
an increase in the PH difference across the inner mitochondrial membrane
In fermentation, ______ is ________.
The immediate energy source that drives ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylization is
the difference of H+ concentration on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane
Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration?
Most CO2 from catabolism is released during
the Krebs cycle
Glycolysis is an __________ reaction.
When electrons flow along the electron transport chains of mitochondria, which of the following changes occurs.
The PH of the matrix increases.
The final electron in the electron transport chain functions in oxidative phosphorylization is
A major function in the mitochondrial inner membrane is the conversion of energy from electrons to the stored energy of the phosphate bond in ATP. To accomplish this function, this membrane must have all of the following feature EXCEPT
high permeability to protons
In chemiosmotic phosphorylation, what is the most direct source of energy that is used to convert ADP + Pi to ATP?
Energy released from the movement of protons through ATP synthase
Carbon skeletons to be broken down during cellular respiration can be obtained from
polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids
During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence?
food -> NADH -> Electron transport chain -> oxygen
Which of the following intermediary metabolites enters the Krebs cycle and is formed, in part, by the removal of CO2 from a molecule of pyruvate?
During aerobic respiration, a proton gradient will be generated by ______ and used primarily for _________.
the electron transport chain... ATP synthesis
All of the following are products or intermediaries in glycolysis except
Which of the following statements is true of fermentation?
It produces a net gain of ATP
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is directly involved in
accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
The direct energy source that drives ATP synthesis during respiratory oxidative phosphorylation is
the difference in H+ concentrations on opposites sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane
Catabolism of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates can result in a 2-carbon molecule that enters the Krebs cycle. What is the molecule?
acetic acid or acetyl CoA
During aerobic respiration, which of the following directly donates electrons to the electron transport chain a the lowest energy level?
All of the following statements about NAH+ are true EXCEPT
NAD + has more chemical energy than NADH
Hydrogen ions flowing through a cylinder causing the cylinder and attached rod to rotate like rushing steam turns a water wheel is an analogy that best describes
ATP synthesis activity
Muscle cells in oxygen deprivation convert pyruvate to _______ and in this step gain ______.
Cellular respiration harvests the most chemical energy from which process?
transferring electrons from organic molecules to oxygen
The primary role of oxygen in respiration is to
act as an aceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water
Which metabolic process is most closely associated with intracellular membranes
Glycolysis is believed to be one of the most ancient of metabolic processes. Which statement below least supports this idea?
If run in reverse, glycolysis will build glucose molecules
Inside an active mitochondrion, most electrons follow which pathway?
Krebs cycle -> NADH -> electron transport chain -> oxygen
All of the following are functions of the Krebs cycle EXCEPT
adding electrons and protons to oxygen to form water
Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion?
How many molecules of CO2 would be released from the complete aerobic respiration of a molecule of sucrose, a disaccharide?
During oxidative phosphorylation, H2O is formed. Where do they oxygen atoms in the H2O come from?
Which of the processes in eukaryotic cells will normally proceed whether O2 is present or absent?
When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the intermembrane space, the result is
the creation of a proton gradient
All of the following statements about glycolysis are true EXCEPT
the end products of glycolysis are CO2 and H2O
How many carbon atoms feed into the Krebs cycle?
In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?
NADH and pyruvate
The Krebs cycle produces which of the following molecules that then transfer energy to the electron transport chain?
FADH2 and NADH
The ATP made during fermentation is generated by which of the following?
How many ATP molecules are produced from the complete oxidation of a mole of glucose in cellular respiration?
IMAGE carbon skeletons for amino acid biosynthesis are supplied by intermediates of the Krebs cycle. Which intermediate would supply the carbon skeleton for synthesis of a 5-carbon amino acid?
IMAGE Refer to figure 9.2. How many ATP molecules can be made through substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation with succinyl coA and ended with oxaloacetate?
IMAGE Refer to figure 9.2. Starting with citric acid and ending with oxaloacetic acid, how many ATP molecules can be formed from oxidative phosphorylation?
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?
mitochondrial inner membrane
The electron transport chain energy is used to pump H+ ion into which location?
mitochondrial intermembrane space
Glycolysis takes place in which location?