Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506). Landed in the eastern Bahamas in 1492 and thought he was in the East Indies and thought he was on an outer island of Japan.
German monk. father of the Reformation. posted the ninety-five theses on the door of a church, protesting the selling of indulgences. proclaimed the idea of justification by faith alone.
wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion. believed in predestination (God knew if you were going to heaven or hell the day you were born). started Calvinism.
Married Catherine of Aragon, but could only have a girl. He fell in love with Anne Boleyn, but couldn't divorce Catherine without the consent of the pope Charles V. So he started the Reformation Parliament and so had control of all spiritual matters along with temporal matters. Married Anne.
Catherine of Aragon's nephew. The Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation. Also known as Charles I of Spain.
Spanish explorer and conquistador who took over the Aztec empire (including Tenochtitlan) and captured Moctezuma. Wanted the gold. Proclaimed the Aztec empire the New Spain.
inspired by Cortés's conquest, he went to South America to capture and conquer the Inca empire.
Bartolome de Las Casas
a Dominican who said that conquest was not necessary for conversion for the Native Americans. his ideas inspired the Black Legend.
Aztec emperor who orginally thought Cortés was a god. Welcomed Cortés (a little wary) and offered him gold. Taken prisoner by Cortés and died in unexplainable circumstances
a Muslim from Yunnan and the third Ming emperor in China. Commanded maritime expeditions that sailed to Southeast Asia, India, the Arabian Gulf, and East Africa between 1405 and 1433. The expeditions ended abruptly.
General under Nobunaga; succeeded as leading military power in Japan; continued efforts to break power of daimyos; constructed a series of military alliances that made him the military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598. froze social classes:
samurai were prohibited from quitting the service of their lord, peasants were barred from abandoning their fields to become townspeople.
emperor during Tokugawa Japan. He was very patient. established his headquarters in Edo (todays Tokyo), took title of shogun and called his government the bakufu. confiscated lands of defeated enemies & gave it to vassals & allies as rewards. shuffled domains. imposed legal codes, hostage system, and national policy of seclusion.
monarch in Korea during Choson era. He reformed land taxes, made loans of grain to farmers during spring planting, and encouraged the spread of better agricultural technology. Established Hall of Worthies. Created hangul (alphabetic script).
Also known as James VI of Scotland, he took over the English throne when Elizabeth I died without children and passed it onto him. The first of the Stuart dynasty.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Habsburg ruler. Had no male heir, and didn't want the throne and king to be taken away from his daughter Maria Teresa, so he created the Pragmatic Sanction.
Frederick II (the Great)
King of Prussia. He followed his father, Frederick William's military policies when he came to power. However, he also softened some of his father's laws. With regard to domestic affairs, he encouraged religious toleration and legal reform. According to his theory of government, he believed that a ruler should be like a father to his people. Supported religious freedom, reduced censorship, promoted education, challenged the powers of the junkers (Russian nobility), called himself the "first servant of the state"
Peter the Great
Became the ruler of Russia and known for Westernzing the country in order to be successful. He made Russia come out of their isolation and created the first navy. He soon moved his capital to St. Petersburg, where he expanded the size of Russia.
"the Conqueror", who conquered Constantinople in 1453, and opened it to citizens of many religions and backgrounds. True founder of the Ottoman order.
ruled for 46 years, spread the empire, many cultural interests, expanded military, millet system, devshirme system. known as "the lawgiver" and the Ottomans best ruler
ruler of Safavid empire; tolerant of other religions/ groups; ruled during "Golden Age of the Safavids"
The son of Shah Jahan who did not have such religious toleration as his father or Akbar the Great. He persecute non-Muslims, destroyed Hindu temples, reimposed the poll tax and alienated Rajput leaders.
the spiritual father of the Sikh movement. Preached faith and devotion to one loving and merciful God. Opposed narrow allegiance to particular creeds or rites and excessive pride in external religious observance
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in "Principia Mathematica" (also known as "The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
French philosophe who wrote Candide., Wrote Philosophic Letters on the English & Treatise on Toleration. He admired the English freedom of the press, and religious toleration. He criticized France because of its royal absolutism and lack of freedom of thought.
Baron de Montesquieu
wrote The Spirit of the Laws : developed the idea of the separation of powers into three branches of government
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
King of England during the American Revolution; wished to keep the Americans as a loyal colony; instituted many taxes on the colonists to boost revenue for England
wrote the pamphlet "Common Sense" that favored separation form Great Britain.
This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France. Ruled during the French Revolution. "divine right of kings"
A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.
was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
aka the "Liberator of Venezuela"; a member of the Creole elite. The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
Italian nationalist and patriot who defined nationalism. Said that the nation is derived from God and is part of God's will. Heart of Italian unification.
He replaced Charles X. His reign was known as the July Monarchy. He was called the king of the French rather than king of France. Had to cooperate with the Chamber of Deputies.
leader of the movement for home rule (more Irish control of local government) in Ireland.
Otto von Bismark
Prussian prime minister, he led the unification of Germany and the creation of the German empire. hated the German Social Democratic party
emperor of Austria and King of Hungary; he helps create and reform new type of country called Austria-Hungary
wrote a Vindication of the Rights of Man and then wrote a Vindication of the Rights of Women. wanted equality for women. one of the first feminists.
lead of group of radical (violent) British feminists. Founded the Women's Social and Political Union.
Georgii Plekhanov's chief disciple. Also known as Vladimir Illich Ulyanov. Wrote "What Is to Be Done?". Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
wrote "On the Origin of Species" and "The Descent of Man". He and Russel Wallace explained how evolution could occur. Discovered the principle of natural selection (survival of the fittest). said natural selection applied to humans and that's why we are who we are, not because of God. (he still believed in God though).