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Phylum Arthropoda general info

one of the largest phyla in kingdom Animalia
More than 1 million species
All adult Arthropods have jointed feet
Some juvenile arthropods do not

Characteristics of Arthropoda

have exoskeletons made of chitin
have a hemocoel (abdominal cavity)
have a hemolymph (fills hemocoel-bloodlike)
have a dorsal tube (circulatory system)
have a ventral mouth terminal anus (GI tract)
are dioecious (have separate sexes)
reproduce via eggs

hemocoel

a blood cavity within the bodies of certain invertebrates in which blood bathes tissues directly; part of an open circulatory system

hemolymph

the fluid that circulates through the body of an animal that has an open circulatory system
it is blue-green because it uses copper instead of iron

Subphylums of Arthropoda

Trilobitomorpha (extinct)
Onychophora (living fossils; horseshoe crabs)
Tardigrada (water bears)
Pycnogonida (sea spiders)
Chelicerata (mites, ticks, spiders, scorpions, etc)
Mandibulata (crustaceans, millipedes, centipedes & insects)

importance of Chelicerata & Mandibulata

1) cause disease by themselves
2) produce venoms & toxins through bites
3) are intermediate hosts for other parasites
4) act as vectors for bacterial infection

Class Insecta anatomy

have 6 nerve cells
like primitive mammals but not as well developed
head has antennae & compound eyes
thorax has legs, and wings if present
abdomen has reproductive organs, breathe oxygen

malpighian tubes

saclike organs that extract wastes from the blood in arthropods; rudimentary kidneys

simple metamorphosis

three development stages (i.e. roach)
1) egg
2) nymph (smaller form of adult)
3) adult

complex metamorphosis

four development stages (i.e. flea)
1) egg
2) larva (wormlike)
3) pupae (resting stage, up to 2 years)
4) adult

juvenile growth inhibitor

type of flea control

orders of class insecta

Dictyoptera: cockroaches & grasshoppers
Coleoptera: beetles
Lepidoptera: moths & butterflies
Hemiptera: true bugs
Hymenoptera: wasps, ants & other stinging insects
Anoplura: sucking lice
Mallophaga: chewing lice
Siphonoptera: fleas "winged suckers"
Diptera: 2-winged flies

Acarines

ticks and mites
Subphylum Chelicerata
Class Acarina
only females suck blood

Acariasis

infestation with ticks & mites
"mange"

dioecious

separate sexes
reproduce via eggs

dorsal tube

rudimentary circulatory system of arthropods

Acarina anatomy

have 8 legs
some seed ticks (juvenile ticks) have 6 legs
have an idiosoma & capitulum

capitulum

articulated (moveable) "false head"; the mouth parts

idiosoma

abdomen of acarina
legs are attached

life stages of Acarina

No metamorphosis
4 stages:
1) egg
2) larva (6 legs)
3) nymph (8 legs)
4) adult (8 legs)

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