321 BCE-185 BCE. After Alexander conquered India. Started in Ganges Valley Region and Magadha in the east, then spread throughout all of current day India and Pakistan
Mauryan Empore. Conquered southern Kalinga, then felt guilty and became Buddhist. Changdragupta's grandson. Built great capital, trade (agriculture), and a central treasury (taxes)
1 CE-300 CE. Revival of Mauryan Empire, but much smaller. Started again in Ganges Valley and Mahadha in the east and spread under 3 key leaders: Chandra Gupta, Samadra Gupta, and Chandra Gupta II. Fell to white Huns
Chandra Gupta, Samadra Gupta, and Chandra Gupta II
Not related to Changragupta, of Mauryan Empire. Built elaborate roads connected to Silk Road, developed military tactics, created trade.
606-648 CE. Tried to bring back centralized imperial rule. Military included: 20,000 cabalry, 50,000 infantry, and 5,000 war elephants.
Scholar, Buddhist, generous to his subjects. Assassinated, and his small empire disintegrated.
Indian Disunity Before 1000 CE
In 550 the Gupta Empire collapsed (last nation). 700's C.E- Muslims started to reach India. 1000 CE- Ready to take it over
Muslim Invasions and Delhi Sultanate
1022- Muslim warlords seized India;s Punjab provincs. 1206- Muslims captured Delhi. 1206-1520's- Muslims established Delhi Sultanate, ruled by Muhammad Ghuri, Then Il Tutmish. Muslims spread Islam, but didn't replace Hinduism and Buddhism. Delhi Sultanate reached its peak under Muhammad Ibn Tughluq (1325-1351). Then south broke up, Timur invaded. Muslim Abbasid Dynasty collapsed in 1528, which led to the independent southern states of India.
Independent Southern States
100 BCE-1900 CE Tamil Kingdoms0 Chola, Pandya, Chera. 1300's breakup of Delhi Sultanate led to more southern states. 1338- Bengal. 1347- Bahmani Kingdom. 1390- Gujarat City. 1336- Vijayanagara empire. Malibar city states formed on Indian Coast
Collapse of Delhi Sultanate
Began to lost territory in 1300's. Ransacked by Timur (Mongol leader) in 1398. Delhi Sultanate steadily weakened during 1400's
Babur the Tiger
Mongol warlord. 1498- Launched full scale invasion of India from the North. With army of 12,000, defeated a force 10 times the size of his own. 1526- After the battle of Panipat, founded his own government (Mughal Empire). 1530- Died
The Mughal Empire
Turkish. Mughal empire continued 200 years after Babur. All Mughal rulers were Muslim.1600's- Lost ground to Europe. 1st capital- Agra (Taj Mahal). 2nd Capital- Delhi. Peacock Thrown. Traded cotton, Hinduism, Buddhism, women aristocrats awarded titles, architecture, painting, poetry, Hindu gods.
Akbar's gread grandson. Leader of Mughal Empire. Militant Muslim, forced people to Islam, which weakened economy and let to empire's decline in 1700's
Akbar the Great
1556-1605. Grandson of Babur. Completed conquest of India. Great commander. Heavy artillery. Gov't with tax code, legal system, religious tolerance
Arrival of Europeans
1498- Portuguese trader Vasco de Gama arrived. 1600's- Spanish, Dutch, French, English. 1661- Bombay ceded to English. Dutch established Colombo, Portuguese extablished Calcutta. 1740's- British and French fought to control India. 1750's- English expelled French.
1900's- Became political activist and father of India to fight off British Imperialism. Hind. Hindu, lived meagerly, protested, fasted. Great Salt March, Muslim/ Hindu Riots
Indian Ocean Trade
Trading network tied together East Africa, Arabian peninsula, Persian Guly, India, Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, China, and Japan. Connected Red Sea, Suez Isthmus, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea
Geograhpy of Southeast Asia
Three zones- Mainland (Mekong River flows through). Malay Peninsula. Archipelagoes of the Indian Ocean and South China Sea (volcanis islands). Climate is tropical, terrain mountainous, rainforests. 3000-2000 BCE- Malays and others arrived from China and Indai. Agriculture practiced by 2000 BCE. Early people were also bronze workers and navigators
Southeast Asian States
Funan (200-500 Malay) Chenla (500 Combodia). Burma (500). Thai (500). Vietnamese shates of Champa and Annam. Influenced by China and India. SE Asian states- Key players in Indian Ocean Trade
Khmer empire (500's-1454 CE). Reached its peak during Angkor period (889-1454). Rulers were aggressive expanding to Burma and Malay. Influenced by India- Hinduism, Buddhism. 21,000 temples
Srivijayan empire (500's-1100's). Capital was on Indonesian Island, Sumatra. 600's- Gained control of Indonesia and Malay trade routes. Influenced by India- Hinduism, Buddhism, Borobudor temple. Tamil Kingdoms attacked in 1000's, led to decline. Kertanagara empire took over in 1200's.
2500 BCE-900 CE, left Philippines and Indonesia and settled throughout thousands of Pacific Islands (Oceania). Root farmers, taro, sweet potatoes. Raised pigs, chickens. Fishers, tribes with chiefs, taboo sailors.
Polynesian Waves of Migration
Mirconesia- Melanesia- New Guinea- Australia- Fiji-Polynesia- Hawaii- Easter Island Society
The establishment, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. A process whereby soverignty over the colony is claimed by the metropolitan center and the social structure, government, and economics of the colony are changed by colonists.
The term Colonialism usually refers to...
A period of history from the late 15th to 20th century, when European nation states established colonies on other continents.
Factors of Colonialism Justification
Profits to be made, expansion of power of the metropolitan center and various religious and political beliefs.
The creation and maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination
Imperialism of the last 500 years
Described as a primarily western undertaking that employs "Expansionist-mercantilism and latterly communist- systems"
Imperialized Geographical Domains
Mongolian Empire, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Portuguese Empire, Spanish Empire, Dutch Empire, Persian Empire, French Empire, Russian Empire, Chinese Empire, British Empire.
The term Imperialism can be applied to...
Domains of knowledge, beliegs, values, and expertise, such as the empires of Christianity and Islam