(psychology) the configuration of smaller units of information into large coordinated units
organizing and shaping of information during processing, storage, and retrieval of memories
a memorization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory
encoding specificity principle
The idea that the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code.
context, state dependance, and mood congruence.
explicit (declarative) memory
Long-term memory for factual knowledge and personal experiences. This type of memory requires a conscious effort to remember and entails making declarations about the information remembered.
levels of processing
the concept that the more deeply people encode information, the better they will recall it.
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
A system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it
parallel distributed processing (PDP)
a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
a clue, prompt, or hint that helps trigger recall of a given piece of information stored in long-term memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. There are two types echoic and iconic.
spacing the study of material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
A psychological phenomenon whereby a highly persuasive message, paired with a discounting cue, causes an individual to be more persuaded by the message (rather than less persuaded) over time.
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
Feeling that specific information is stored in long-term memory but of being temporarily unable to retrieve it
a memory aid, such as an abbreviation, rhyme or mental image that helps to remember something
information processing model
a model of memory in which information must pass through discrete stages via the processes of attention, encoding, storage, and retrieval
Three stage model
model of memory that posits three distinct stages of memory: sensory, short-term, and long-term
Model of working memory where, the component that integrates information from the phonological loop and the visuospatial working memory, as well as material retrieved from long-term memory. This also plays a major role in planning and controlling behavior.
implicit (nondeclarative) memory
Long-term memory for procedural motor and cognitive tasks and conditioning effects. This type of memory does not require conscious awareness or the need to make declarations about the information remembered.
Belief that forgetting occurs because other items get in the way of the information a person wants to remember.
motivated forgetting theory
A theory of forgetting that states that a strong desire to forget, usually because the memory is too disturbing or upsetting to remember
encoding failure theory
A theory of forgetting that proposes that forgetting is due to the failure to encode the information into long-term memory.
retrieval failure theory
Proposes that forgetting occurs because we lack or fail to use the right cues to retrieve information stored in memory. The information is not lost forever: it simply cannot be retrieved at that moment. Also called cue dependant forgetting
detailed memory for events surrounding a dramatic event that is vivid and remembered with confidence
tips for memory imrovement
1) Pay attention and reduce interference
2) Use rehearsal techniques
3) Use the encoding specificity principle
4) Improve your organization
5)Counteract serial position effect
6)Manage your time
7)Employ self monitoring and overlearning
8)Use mnemonic devices
The world memory champion uses a device called loci. He associates each card with a character and places each character in a location