Memory (Chapter 7)

52 terms by simsimanand 

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chunking

(psychology) the configuration of smaller units of information into large coordinated units

constructive process

organizing and shaping of information during processing, storage, and retrieval of memories

elaborative rehearsal

a memorization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory

encoding

the processing of information into the memory system (keyboard)

encoding specificity principle

The idea that the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code.
context, state dependance, and mood congruence.

episodic memory

memory of personal experiences

explicit (declarative) memory

Long-term memory for factual knowledge and personal experiences. This type of memory requires a conscious effort to remember and entails making declarations about the information remembered.

levels of processing

the concept that the more deeply people encode information, the better they will recall it.

long term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

maintenance rehearsal

A system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it

memory

the area of cognitive psychology that studies memory processes

parallel distributed processing (PDP)

a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections

priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response

recall

remembering something that happened earlier, like short answer questions on a test

retrieval

The process of getting information out of memory storage. (monitor)

recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test

retrieval cue

a clue, prompt, or hint that helps trigger recall of a given piece of information stored in long-term memory

semantic memory

your memory for meanings and general (impersonal) facts

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. There are two types echoic and iconic.

short-term memory

memory that is limited in capacity to about seven items in a duration

storage

the retention of encoded information over time (computer)

distributed practice

spacing the study of material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods

massed practice

learning in one long practice session without rest periods

proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

relearning

a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

retroactive interference

The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

sleeper effect

A psychological phenomenon whereby a highly persuasive message, paired with a discounting cue, causes an individual to be more persuaded by the message (rather than less persuaded) over time.

source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined

tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

Feeling that specific information is stored in long-term memory but of being temporarily unable to retrieve it

Alzheimer's disease (AD)

progression mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss

anterograde amnesia

Inability to store new memories after a traumatic event

long-term potentiation

enhanced response at synapes within the hippocampus

retrograde amnesia

loss of memory for events immediately preceding a trauma

mnemonic device

a memory aid, such as an abbreviation, rhyme or mental image that helps to remember something

information processing model

a model of memory in which information must pass through discrete stages via the processes of attention, encoding, storage, and retrieval

Three stage model

model of memory that posits three distinct stages of memory: sensory, short-term, and long-term

central executive

Model of working memory where, the component that integrates information from the phonological loop and the visuospatial working memory, as well as material retrieved from long-term memory. This also plays a major role in planning and controlling behavior.

implicit (nondeclarative) memory

Long-term memory for procedural motor and cognitive tasks and conditioning effects. This type of memory does not require conscious awareness or the need to make declarations about the information remembered.

decay theory

The idea that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time.

interference theory

Belief that forgetting occurs because other items get in the way of the information a person wants to remember.

motivated forgetting theory

A theory of forgetting that states that a strong desire to forget, usually because the memory is too disturbing or upsetting to remember

encoding failure theory

A theory of forgetting that proposes that forgetting is due to the failure to encode the information into long-term memory.

retrieval failure theory

Proposes that forgetting occurs because we lack or fail to use the right cues to retrieve information stored in memory. The information is not lost forever: it simply cannot be retrieved at that moment. Also called cue dependant forgetting

recency effect

The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence.

primacy effect

The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.

flashbulb memories

detailed memory for events surrounding a dramatic event that is vivid and remembered with confidence

logic

a system of reasoning

consistency

a harmonious uniformity or agreement among things or parts

tips for memory imrovement

1) Pay attention and reduce interference
2) Use rehearsal techniques
3) Use the encoding specificity principle
4) Improve your organization
5)Counteract serial position effect
6)Manage your time
7)Employ self monitoring and overlearning
8)Use mnemonic devices

loci

The world memory champion uses a device called loci. He associates each card with a character and places each character in a location

peg words

Use the same picture method as link words, but create a picture in your mid that links the first word with the peg word.

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