the fertilized egg; enters a two week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
agents, such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As an infant gains familiarty with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus their interests retreats.
our spoken, written or signed words and the way we combine them to communicated meaning. (Chomsky)
the smallest sound unit in language
the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word, i.e. a prefix.
in language, a system of rules that enable us to communicate with and understand others.
stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to household language.
stage where child speaks mostly single words.
stage in speech development where a child speaks two-word statements.
stage in speech development where child speaks like a telegram using mostly nouns and verbs, i.e.: "go car."
operant learning stage: association
of sights, of things with the sounds of words
operant learning stage: imitation
of the words and syntax modeled by others.
operant learning: reinforcement
with smiles and hugs when the child says something right.
Inborn Universal grammar
Children acquire untaught words and grammar at a rate too extraordinary to be explained solely by learning principles. All humans have the same grammatical building blocks. (Chomsky)
hypothesis that language determines the way we think
bilingual children who inhibit one language using another are more able to inhibit irrelavant information.
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience.
all mental activities associated with thinking. Knowing, remembering and communicating.
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. (Piaget)
interpreting our new experiment in terms of our existing schemas.
the process by which the eye lens changes shape to focus, hear or form objects on the retina.
the stage during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
the stage during which a child learns to use language but doesn't yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete language.
principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, thoughts and behaviors these might predict.
concrete operational stage
the stage of cognitive development during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
the stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interation, and understanding of others' mind states.
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by eight months.
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by seeking their closest caregiver.
Showed the importance of THIS in Harry Harlow's experiment with rhesus monkeys. The monkeys had two surrogate mothers, a wire one and a cloth one, and the monkeys attached more to the cloth mother because of this concept.
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
the process by which certain animals form attachment during a critical period very early in life.
a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregiver.
all thoughts and feelings about ourselves in response to the question: "Who am I?"
parents impose rules and expect obedience.
parents submit to their children's ideas and make little punishment.
parents are both demanding and responsive
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; biological changes women experience as ability to reproduce declines.
Dementia and Alzheimer's affect on age
up to age 95, the incidence of mental disintegration doubles roughly every five years; strikes up 3% of the world.
aspect of memory involving remembering to do a task. "Remember to..."
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time.
our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tens to decrease during late adulthood.
In the last 3 or 4 years of life, cognitive decline accelerates.
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage.
the time of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
primary sex characteristics
the body structures that make sexual reproduction possible.
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as femal breasts and hips, male voice and body hair.
the first menstrual period a girl experiences.
most focus on self-interest. They obey rules to avoid punishment or gain rewards.
morlity focuses on caring for others and upholding laws and social rules.
actions are judged to be right because they flow from people's rights.
mind makes moral judgements quickly and automatically
the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various personalities.
the "We" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to the question: "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships.
the ability to form close, loving relationships, a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
a period from late teens to early twenties bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood.