in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
A pact between Stalin and Hitler that stated that if either one of them got involed in a war, the other would remain neutral. An attached secret protocal ruthlessly divided eastern Europe into German and Soviet zones "in the event of a political territorial reorganization." The British and French felt betrayed because they had also been negotiating with Stalin.
Grand Alliance (Allies)
Led by the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, it was determined to smash the Nazi order.
German word meaning "lightning war" which describes the swift attacks launched by the Germans in WWII. German military strategy of combined forces of infantry, artillary, tanks, and air force. "Lightning War" using planes, tanks, and trucks, the first example of which Hitler used to crush Poland in four weeks.
Hitler's air force. He tried to use it to bomb England into submission, but this strategy failed. The RAF (Royal Air Force) though fewer in number, were more maneuverable then German planes. The RAF also had radar, a new electronic device that gave the British enough early warning so they would not be caught by surprise.
Southeast part of France. Supposedly an independent French government, but is actually ruled by Nazi collaborators who run the government from its capital in Vichy. It was a puppet government; petain was made president, but germany was really controlling it.
Battle of Britain
The prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it. The British airforce (Royal Air Force) defeated the German Luftwaffe.
AKA D-day. The American and British invasion of France in World War II; Normandy is a province of northern France. The successful invasion began a series of victories for the Allies, and Germany surrendered less than a year later.
Codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II. This attack led to USSR joining the Allies.
It means the victor decides all the conditions the loser must agree to. The Allies (USSR, US, and Britain) wanted Germany and Japan to agree to unconditional surrender. FDR announced with Churchill's endorsement that the war would end only with this: the conquered governments would be no longer, no compromise could be reached. Later people believe that this stiffened enemy resistance.