World History - Chapter 10 - Muslim Civilizations

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World History - Chapter 10 - Muslim Civilizations

Bedouins

small groups of nomadic people in Arabia

Muhammad

the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)

Mecca

the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace

Yathrib

Original name of the city of Medina

Hijra

the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution a.d. 622: regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era.

Medina

City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)

Kaaba

a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine

Quran

the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina

mosque

(Islam) a Muslim place of worship

hajj

the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah

jihad

a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal

Sharia

the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed

Abu Bakr

Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.

caliph

the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth

Sunni

one of the two main branches of orthodox Islam

Shiite

a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs

Sufis

a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life

Umayyads

A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus.

Abbasids

A dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from 750 to about 1250.

Baghdad

capital and largest city of Iraq

minaret

slender tower with balconies

sultan

the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)

social mobility

The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.

Firdawsi

wrote the Shah Namah, or Book of Kings, that told the history of Persia

Omar Khayyam

Persian poet and mathematician and astronomer whose poetry was popularized by Edward Fitzgerald's translation (1050-1123)

calligraphy

beautiful handwriting

Ibn Rushd

Muslim philosopher who blended Aristotle and Plato's views with Islam

Ibn Khaldun

Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city. (336)

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