the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution a.d. 622: regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era.
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus.
The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.
Persian poet and mathematician and astronomer whose poetry was popularized by Edward Fitzgerald's translation (1050-1123)