Chapter 4- Tour of the Cell

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The function of the nucleolus is

to manufacture ribosomal RNA

A child dies following a series of chronic bacterial infections. At the autopsy, the physicians are startled to see that the child's white blood cells are loaded with vacuoles containing intact bacteria. Which of the following explanations could account for this finding?

A defect in the lysosomes of the white blood cells prevented the cells from destroying engulfed bacteria.

Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is false?

Once laid down, the elements of the cytoskeleton are fixed and remain permanently in place.

Which of the following statements regarding cells is false?

All cells have a cell wall

The function of chloroplasts is

photosynthesis

A scientist wants to examine living cells lining the respiratory tract to determine how the cells use tiny hairs to move dirt and mucus away from the lungs. Which of the following instruments would be best, and why?

a light microscope because it allows observations of whole, live cells

Which of the following statements about cellular metabolism (the breaking down & building of molecules) is false?

Cellular metabolism occurs in animal but not plant cells

Which of the following structures is exclusively associated with prokaryotic cells?

nucleoid

Long fibers of DNA and protein are called

chromatin

The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells defines

cell theory

Cilia differ from flagella in that

cilia are typically more numerous andshorter than flagella

A manufacturing company dumps its wastes into a nearby pond. One of the wastes is found to paralyze the contractile vacuoles of certain protists. A biologist looking at individual samples of these organisms taken from the pond would find that they

have gained water and burst

Your throat is dry, and you want the last cough drop in the box to last a long time in your mouth. What should you do?

Keep the cough drop whole.

________ cells lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus.

Prokaryotic

Which of the following structures are used by prokaryotes for attaching to surfaces?

pili

Archaea are composed of _______ cells

prokaryotic

Insulin is a protein that is produced by pancreatic cells and secreted into the bloodstream. Which of the following options correctly lists the order of the structures through which insulin passes from its production to its exit from the cell?

rough ER, transport vesicles, Golgi apparatus, transport vesicles, cell membrane

The nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cell

contains the cell's DNA

The diameter of most animal and plant cells ranges from

10 to 100 micrometers

The nucleus of a cell

contains DNA

The cells that produce hair contain a lot of ______, while the cells that produce the oils that coat the hair contain a lot of _______.

rough endoplasmic reticulum... smooth endoplasmic reticulum

A scanning electron microscope is used to study ____, whereas a transmission electron microscope is used to study _____.

cell surfaces... internal cell structures

Unlinke animal cells, plant cells have _____ and ______. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have ______.

chloroplasts... cell walls... centrioles

Light microscopes

use light and glass lenses to magnify an image

The oil from the sebaceous glands is produced by which of the following cell organelles?

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

One centimeter = _______ millimeters

10

Which of the following statements about cells is true?

All cells have internal structures that move.

The membranous compartmentalization of a cell

allows different metabolic processes to occur simultaneously

Microfilaments differ from microtubules in that microfilaments

are mainly composed of actin, whereas microtubules are composed of tubulin

Nucleus

DNA synthesis; RNA synthesis; assembly of ribosomal subunits (in nucleoli)

Ribosomes

polypeptide (protein) synthesis

Rough ER

synthesis of membrane proteins, secretory proteins, and hydrolytic enzymes; formation of transport vesicles

Smooth ER

lipid synthesis; carbohydrate metabolism in liver cells; detoxification in liver cells; calcium ion storage

Golgi apparatus

modification, temporary storage, and transport of macromolecules; formation of lysosomes and transport needs

Lysosomes

digestion of nutrients, bacterian, and damaged organelles; destruction of certain cells during embryonic development

Peroxisomes

diverse metabolic processes, with breakdown of H2O2 by-product

Vacuoles

digestion (like lysosomes); storage of chemicals; cell enlargement; water balance

Chloroplasts

conversion of light energy to chemical energy of sugars

Mitochondria

conversion of chemical energy of food to chemical energy of ATP

Cytoskeleton

maintenance of cell shape; anchorage for organelles; movement of organelles within cells; cell movement; mechanical transmission of signals from exterior of cell to interior

Cell walls

maintenance of cell shape and skeletal support; surface protection; binding of cells in tissues

Extracellular matrix

binding of cells in tissues; surface protection; regulation of cellular activities

Cell junctions

communication between cells; binding of cells in tissues

Which of the following cells has the greatest surface area-to-volume ratio?

bacterium

As cell size increases, the

volume increases faster than the surface area

The Golgi apparatus

stores, modifies and packages proteins

A cell is exposed to a substance that prevents it from dividing. The cell becomes larger and larger. This situation

will eventually be problematic, since the cell's ability to absorb nutrients through its outer membrane will not keep increasing as quickly as its cytoplasmic needs

The function of mitochondria is

cellular respiration

It is essential for heart muscle cells to beat in a coordinated fashion. The cell junctions that would best facilitate this are

communicating junctions

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

stores calcium ions in muscle cells

Which of the following statements about electron microscopes is true?

Electron microscopes focus electron beams to create a magnified image of an object.

A bacterial cell's DNA is found in its

nucleoid region

Mitochondria differ from chloroplasts in that mitochondria

contain membrane folds called cristae, whereas chloroplasts contain disk-like vesicles in stacks called grana

When a cell is deprived of oxygen, its lysosomes tend to burst and release their contents into the cell. As a result of this, that cell will

undergo self-digestion and die

Contractile vacuoles

prevent cells from bursting as a result of the influx of excess water

The endosymbiosis hypothesis proposes that

a small cell lived inside a larger cell to the benefit of both cells

A scientist wants to magnify a pollen grain 8,000 times and examine the ridges and pores on its surface. Which one of the following instruments would be best?

a scanning electron microscope

Skin cells are attached to each other by

tight junctions

Which of the following statements regarding the Golgi apparatus is false?

The Golgi apparatus decreases in size when a cell increases its protein production.

Which of the following statements about the functions of a plant cell central vacuole is false?

The central vacuole of a plant cell may digest chemicals for recycling.

The stroma is the

thick fluid enclosed by the inner chloroplast membrane

Plasma membranes are permeable to

nonpolar molecules such as CO2

Which part of the mitochondrion shown is its matrix?

structure E

Which of the following cell structures is associated with the breakdown of harmful substances or substances that are no longer needed by the cell?

peroxisomes

The plasma cell produces thousands of antibodies per second. What type of intracellular structure would you expect to be very prominent within the cell?

endoplasmic reticulum

Resolution is the

ability of an optical instrument to show two close objects as seperate

Which of the following statements about lysosomes is false?

Lysosomes synthesize proteins from the recycled amino acids

A drug that interferes with microtubule formation is likely to completely disrupt

the movements of sperm cells

Unlike animal cells, plant cells have _______ and _________. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have _________.

chloroplasts... cell walls... centrioles

Tay-Sachs disease results from the malfuction of

lysosomes

The two main functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are the production of

membrane and proteins secreted by the cell

During cell reproduction, chromatin fibers coil up into structures called

chromosomes

Which of the following statements regarding plasmodesmata is false?

Plasmodesmata are commonly found in single-celled organisms

Secretory proteins (proteins that are secreted by a cell) are

released from the cell through the plasma membrane

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