right of all citizens to vote regardless of such charactaristics as gender, ethnicity, wealth, or education
system used to translate votes that people cast into composition of legislature and selection of gov't.
single member plurality (SMP) system
electoral system in which voters in each geographical constituency elect a single representative to the legislature. Candidate with most votes is elected, regardless of whether that candidate received the majority of votes.
body that elects the president of the USA. Members of this group are expected to vote for the presidential candidate who has won the most votes in their state
majoritarian electoral system
electoal system designed to try to ensure that the winning candidate has the support of the majority of votes cast
part of majoritarian electoral system election held if no candidate receives majorirty of votes; generally, only top 2 candidates appear on ballot to ensure winning candidate has majority of votes cast
part of majoritarian electoral system electoral system in which voters rank candidates in order of preference. If no candidates has majority of first preferenes, the candidate with the least votes is dropped and the second preferences of those who voted for that candidate are added to the votes of other candidates. Precess continues until one candidate has a majority.
proportional representation (PR) system
an electoral system in which the proportion of seats a party receives reflects the proportion of votes it has obtained
single member plurality (SMS); majoritarian (runoff elections, preferential voting); proportional representation (including single transferable votes); mixed member plurality
4 types of electoral systems
part of PR system form of gov't in which 2 or more parties jointly govern, sharing the Cabinet positions
single transferable vote (STV) system
electoral system in which voters mark their preferences for candidates in a multimember constituency. Candidates receiving a certain proportion of the vote are declared elected. The 2nd preference of voters that are surplus to what the winning candidates need are then transferred to candidates who have not reached the quota. This process is continued until all seats in the constituency are filled.
mixed member proportional (MMP) system
electoral system in which voters cast one vote for the party they prefer and one vote for the candidate they prefer. Some legislators are elected to represent particular constituencies based on gaining the most votes in that constituency, while others are elected based on the popular vote received by their party.
premodern, modern, postmodern
3 types of election campaigns
long-term psychological attachment to a particular political party
issues on which there is a general consensus