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Shigella dysenteriae

Dysentery
Low infectious dose (10 bacteria)
toxico-infection; Shiga neurotoxin (AB)
lactose -

symptoms of Shigella dysenteriae

1-4 day incubation period--- bloody and watery diarrhea, mucus (> 20 stools/day) for 2-7 d

Shigella dysenteriae treatment

Rehydration, TMP-SMX
5 Fs

Shigella dysenteriae transmitted by:

#1 cause of mortality in children world wide; fecal-oral

Campylobacter jejuni

Diarrhea
Heat labile entertoxin

Symptoms of Campylobacter jejuni

Frequent watery stools, fever, vomiting, headache and abdominal pain -2weeks

treatment of Campylobacter jejuni

oral rehydration and electrolyte replacement, erythromycin

Campylobacter jejuni transmitted by :

food prep, sanitary water
Guillain-Barré

Vibrio cholerae

Cholera
toxogenic = AB toxin coded on a plasmid that upregulates cAMP --> H2O & electrolyte loss

symptoms of Vibrio cholerae

clear watery diarrhea, rice-water stools

Vibrio cholerae is transmitted by:

fecal-oral; sanitation
**V. parahaemolyticus causes epidemic shellfish enterocolitis

what are the symptoms of Escherichia coli?

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) or dysentery (shiga-like, enteroinvasive (EIEC))

diagnosis of Escherichia coli:

lactose +; typing
---enterotoxin (AB exotoxin)

Escherichia coli is transmitted by :

normal flora; fecal-oral. EHEC (O157:H7) causes bloody diarrhea--- HUS
infective dose < 10 organisms

Helicobacter pylori & symptoms

likes acid environment; tropism for gastric mucosa
dyspepsia, gastritis
painful stomach and duodenal ulcers

diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

breath test for urease; endoscopy

Clostridium difficile

Pseudomembranous Colitis
>>>also called antibiotic associated colitis because it follows broad spectrum antibiotic usage
Normal flora; nosocomial

Symptoms of Clostridium difficile

toxin induced diarrhea

Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile

Tox test

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