33.Why did Europeans see Africans as a better source of labor than Native Americans?
p125, the labor of one African was thought to be more valuable than that of four native Americans
34. What was the purpose of most of the joint stock companies of the 1500s and 1600s?
p.140, to afford the building of colonies in Americaq
35.Where in the Americas did Christopher Columbas land first?
p. 119, on the Bahama islands
36. What did the ecomienda system provide for?
p123, provided cheap native american labor to Spanish landlords if they promised not to harm the natives and treat them fairly
37. What prompted a wave of new businesses and trade practices in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries?
p. 139, new wealth flowing in from the Americas along with dramatic growth in overseas trade
38. Which European country was the first to import enslaved Africans to the Americas?
p. 132, Portugal
39. As part of the Columbian Exchange, which of the following was carried west across the Atlantic?
p. 137, the global transfer of foods plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas.
40. Which of the following areas was originally founded as a settlement by the Dutch?
p. 138, The waterways of the Hudson river, Hudson bay, and Hudson straight and trading posts on the hUDSON River at Fort Orange (now Albany New York) and on Manhattan Island.
41. What concept was the belief in "divine right" used to support?
p. 160, that kings had power to rule that was given by god
42. Which war was sparked by religious conflict and resulted in the increased power of France, the weakening of Spain and Austria, and the devastation of Germany?
p. 169, the Thirty Years War
43. Who inherited the Austrian throne only after Charles VI had the other European powers sign an agreement declaring they would recognize the heir?
p. 171, Maria Theresa
44. Which of the following did the Glorious Revolution bring to England's throne?
p. 182, the bloodless overthrow of King James II who was a Catholic. William and Mary, who were protestant, replaced him on the throne.
45. By the end of the 1600s what had England's system of government become?
p. 183, the Constitutional Monarchy
46. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, which of the following groups suffered the greatest loss of power?
p. 174, the boyars (a member of an old order of Russian nobility)
47. What were some of Philip II's accomplishments as king of Spain?
p. 155, seized Portugal, which in turn brought the Portugese colonies in Africa, India and the East Indies under Spanish rule.
48. What was the main cause of the eight civil wars that were fought in France between 1562 and 1598?
p. ?, Religious wars between the Catholics and Protestants.
49. What king became France's most powerful ruler and boasted "I am the state"?
p. 164, Louis XIV
50. Why did Peter the Great build the City of St. Petersburg?
p. 177, He wanted a seaport for easier travel to the west which would help promote education and growth in Russia
51.Francis Bacon helped to develop?
p. 192, empiricism, also known as the experimental method
52. Isaac Newton explained the?
p. 192, his law of gravity explained how the same physical lows governed motion both on earth and in the heavens.
53. In general the Philosophes influenced Catherine the Great's?
p. 204, reform of Russian laws
54. The Declaration of Independence was written by?
p. 207, Thomas Jefferson
55. The bill of rights was influenced by ?
p. 211, The enlightenment values of Voltaire, Rousseau, and Locke
56. Henry Fielding was a writer who?
p. 203, wrote "Tom Jones".
57. The heliocentric or sun-centered theory was proposed by?
p. 190, Nicholaus Copernicus
58. About what percentage of France's population belonged to the Third Estate?
p. 190, about 97%
59. What happened on July 14, Bastille Day?
p. 221, storming of the Bastille prison
60. Which goal was not stated in the "slogan of the Revolution"?
p. 221, equal rights for women
61. Which document stated that "men are born and remain free and qual in rights"?
p. 222, The French declaration of the rights of men and of the citizen.
62. During the Reign of Terror who was safe from the guillotine?
p. 276, No one was safe. Used for the monarchy, middle class and peasants.
63. What was Napoleon able to accomplish during peacetime?
p. 230, He established a national bank in France, converted France to the metric system, built new roads, reformed the army, attempted to rebuild the navy, brought France out of bankruptcy, and established a new legal system known as the Napoleonic code.
64. How did Admiral Nelson win the Battle of Trafalgar?
p. 233, He split the larger British Fleet, capturing many ships
65. Why did Napoleon attack Portugal?
p. 235, he wanted Portugal to accept the Continental System.
66. Which of the following was an important goal of the Congress of Vienna?
p. 238, balance of power
67. Who was the most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna?
p.238, Prince Klemens von Metternich
68. The person most responsible for the acccomplishments of the Congress of Vienna was?
p. 238, Prince Klemens von Metternich
69. The accomplishments of the Congress of Vienna included all of the fllowing EXCEPT?
p. 238, surrounding France with strong neighboring countries
70. The actions of the Congress of Vienna helped to Generate an independence movement in?
p.241, South America
71. All of the following were members of the Holy Alliance EXCEPT?
p. 240, Austria, Russia and Prussia were not members of the Holy Alliance.
72. The accomplishments of the Congress of Vienna included all of the following except?
p.241, Accomplishments were:balance of power, diminishing the size and power of France. The power of Britain and Prussia increased. The spread of Nationalism.
73. About what percent of France's population belonged to the first and second estates?
p. 217, about two percent
74. All of the following were members of the Holy Alliance except?
p. 240, Austria, Prussia, and Russia were the members of the Holy Alliance.
75. As a result of the actions taken by the Congress of Vienna, the monarchy was restored on the basis of "legitimacy" in?
p. 239 Rulers in France, Spain, and several states in Italy and Central Europe who were driven from their throne by Napoleon were restored to power.
76. About what percent of France's population belonged to the First and Second Estates?
p.217, about two percent (2%)
77. Which group most strongly embraced the ideals and principles of the Enlightenment?
P. 217, the bourgeois (a class of citizens who were wealthier members of the Third Estate).
78. What issue lead to the first meeting of the Estates General in 175 years?
p. 222, raising taxes
79. Why did the National Assembly lose the support of many French peasants?
p. 222,Church reform
80. Which group imposed the Reign of Terror?
p. 226, the Jacobins
81. Which group finally forced Robespierre from power?
p. 227, The national convention
82. Which of the following was not a reason for napoleon to sell the Louisiana territory?
p. 231, he sold the Louisiana territory to finance operations in Europe and to punish the British by increasing the power of the United States.
83. What was one important consequence of the Battle of Trafalgar?
p. 233, forced Napoleon to give up his plan to invade Britain
84. How did Great Britain react to the Continental System?
p. 231, Britain responded with a blockade
85. What was the main goal of the participants in the Congress of Vienna?
p. 238, A new European order with stability & security
86. Which of the following is an accurate description of the tax system in France in the years preceding the French Revolution?
p. 217, members of the third Estate paid most of the taxes
87. Which of the following is an accurate description of the tax system in France in the years preceding the French Revolution?
p. 217, members of the third Estate paid most of the taxes
88. In what way did the bourgeosie differ from other members of the Third Estate?
p. 217, They were well educated and believed in the ideals of the Enlightenment.
89. What issue arose after the king called for the Estates-General to meet?
p. 220, Whether the third estate would be represented
90, What does the word "plebiscite" mean?
p. 230, a plebiscite is a vote of the people
91. Which of the following did Napoleon NOT accomplish?
p. 231, He wanted to control the rest of Europe and gain French control of the Americas. He did not succeed
92. How did Admiral Nelson defeat the French-Spanish fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar?
p. 233, he split the larger French-Spanish fleet in half, and captured many of the ships.
93. What strategy did Czar Alexander I use to defeat Napoleon in Russia?
p. 235, the "scorched earth" strategy in which the enemy's grain fields were burned and their livestock slaughtered so they had nothing to eat.
94. Which of the following traits did Napoleon NOT possess?
p. 231, He was a military genius and a brilliant administrator, but he did not have humility (virtue).
95. What did Klemens von Metternich NOT want to accomplish at the Congress of Vienna?
p. 238, he did not want to create democracy
96. What was one important effect resulting from the political changes made at the Congress of Vienna?
p. 239, the entire european continent cooperated to control their political affairs, and agreed to come to one another's aid in case of threats to peace.
97. What European Nation profited most from trade with the East in the years directly following the Crusades?
p. 95, Italy
98. Which nation did Prince Henry help to take the lead in overseas exploration?
p. 96, Portugal
99. In the 1400s what was the most important trade good from the East?
100. The Tokugawa Shogunate was a type of?
p.110, Type of government administration under the rule of the Shogun
01. What was THE Renaissance a rebirth of?
p. 37 , the arts and learning
02. The study of classical texts caused humanists to focus on what subject?
p.38, "Humanism" an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements
03. For what is the Medici family famous?
p.38, they took over rule of the city-state of Florerence Italy
04. What were Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More?
p. 48, they were both Christian Humanists and authors. Erasmus wrote "The Praise of Folly" and More wrote "Utopia"
05.What was the first full-sized book Gutenberg printed?
p. 50, he printed the Gutenberg Bible in 1440
06. In what way did Leonardo da Vinci represent the Renaissance man?
p. 39 and 41, Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, inventor and scientist, and had many of the traits expressed by Castiglione
07.Luther protested the practice of selling indulgences. What was that practice?
p. 55, An Indulgences was a pardon. People would buy an "indulgence" from a priest as a way to pardon their sins. Luther believed that selling indulgences led to the belief that people could buy their way into heaven.
08. Who declared himself head of the English Church?
P. 59, Henry VIII of England.
09. What was one of John Calvin's major teachings?
He believed that theocracy, a government controlled by religious leaders, was best. He also believed in predestination, saying that God has always known who will be saved.
10. Who was the important Catholic reformer who founded the Jesuit order
p. 64, Ignatius of Loyola
11. What was the devishirme system designed to do?
p. 76, practiced in the Ottoman empire. The Sultan's army would draft boys from the peoples of conquered Christian territories, educate them, and convert them to Islam, then train them to become soldiers.
12. How did Timur the Lame's military activities affect the growth of the Ottoman Empire?
p. 74, He burned the city of Bagdad to the ground and defeated the Ottoman forces at the battle of Ankara in 1402.
13. Why did Shay Jahan order the building of the Taj Mahal.
p. 85, it was a tomb for his beloved wife who died while giving birth to her 14th child
14. Which of the following was a result of Western influences on the Safavid Empire?
The demand for Persian carpets changed carpet weaving from a local craft into a national industry.
15. What contributed to the decline of the Ottoman and Safavid Empires?
p. 81, There was no chosen competent heir or successor to lead the empires
16. What change did the Sikhs undergo during the course of the Mughal Empire?
p, 85. The nonviolent Sikhs became the enemy of the Islam Muhgal empire.
17. What did Mehmed II do after he conquered Constantinople?
p. 75, he opened Constinanople to citizens of many religions and backgrounds. These new citizens helped rebuild Constitanople which is now called Istanbul.
18. Which of the following is not true of Isma'il?
p. 79-80, at the age of 12 Isma'il seized most of what is now Iran. He declared himself shah (persian for King). and established Shi'a Islam as the state religion.
19. What did Suleyman the lawgiver support?
p. 76, laws to handle civil and criminal actions, the devshirme system, though Muslim, he granted freedom of worship to other religions particularly to Christians and Jews.
20. Who ruled India for Jangahir?
p. 84, Jangahir's wife, Nur Jahan
21. Which European country was the leader in developing and applying 15th century sailing innovations?
22. Who were the first Europeans to arrive on Japanese soil?
p. 111, the Portugese in 1543
23. Why was the caravel an important development in navigation?
p. 96, the caravel was sturdier than earlier ships and it had triangular sails which allowed it to sail effectively against the wind.
24.Korea was a vassal state of which country during the 1700s?
p. 106, China
25. During the 1500s what was China's official trade policy?
p. 103, China wanted to be isolated so only the government was allowed to conduct foreign trade and this could only be done through the three coastal ports of Canton, Macao, and Ningbo
26. Why did Lord Macartney give a letter from King George III to Qian-long?
p. 105, the British wanted a better trade arrangement to include Chinese acceptance of British manufactured goods.
27. Who captained the first European ship to said around the tip of Africa, now known as the Cape of Good Horn?
p. 98, a Portuguese sailor named Bartolemeu Dias in 1488
28. What did Hongwu do first to help China become a dominant power?
102, he began reforms to restore agricultural lands devastated by war, erased all traces of the Mongol past, increased rice production and improved irrigation, encouraged the production of commercial crops and fish farming.
29. What type of policy did Japan institute to control foreign ideas?
p. 117, the closed country policy, which ended most commercial contacts with Europeans.
30. What type of poetry presents images rather than expresses an idea
p. 110, the Haiku, a three line verse of poetry written with 5 words on the 1st line, 7 on the 2nd, and 5 on the 3rd
31. What was the main economic activity in New France?
p. 128, the fur trade.
32. Who conquered the Aztec empire?
p. 122, Hernando Cortez