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Within a population and due to competition between individuals, those individuals with an advantage will survive to pass their genes on to the next generation. This idea is called

Natural Selection

Which of the following is not a condition necessary for biological evolution to occur?

Reproduction must be asexual

Any heritable trait that enables an organism to survive through natural selection and reproduce better under prevailing environmental conditions is called

adaptation

Coevolution can involve the interaction of

ALL OF THE ANSWERS: plants and herbivores, pollinators and flowers, parasites and hosts, plant roots and fungi

Over the course of time, the change in the gene pool of one species may lead to the change of the gene pool of another species. This process is called

coevolution

The movement of tectonic plates influences evolution by

changing the locations of continents, causing some species to be geographically isolated from others

An organism's niche is analogous to its

way of life

A hummingbird would be considered a specialist species because

it can only eat one certain type of food

Geographic isolation may result from

ALL OF THE ANSWERS: a volcanic eruption, an earthquake, a mountain range, a river

What does species richness refer to?

the number of different species

What does species evenness refer to?

the number of individuals of each species

Where is most of the world's biodiversity?

low-latitude forests

Species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem are known as

native species

Species that serve as early warnings of environmental damage are called

indicator species

Species whose roles in an ecosystem are much more important than their abundance would suggest are called

keystone species

Species that migrate or are accidentally introduced into an ecosystem are called

nonnative species

Which term means the opposite of the others? Exotic species, native species, alien species, nonnative species, or generalist species.

nonnative species

Birds and trout make good

indicator species

Wild African bees are best described as

nonnative species

Sea otters, dung beetles, and gopher tortoises are generally considered to be

keystone species

Which of the following statements is false?

Interspecific competition is competition between two members of the same species

The relationship between fire ants and native ant populations is best described as

interspecific competition

The obvious relationship demonstrated by a food chain is

predation

Prey are least likely to defend themselves against predators by

pursuit and ambush

A relationship in which one species benefits while the other is neither helped nor harmed to any significant degree is best labeled

commensalism

A relationship in which both species benefit is best labeled

mutualism

Of the following relationships, the one most likely to be described as a positive feedback loop is

mutualism

Which of the following statements about primary succession is false?

It is an orderly progression from pioneer species to climax species indicative of the region being studied.

How long does it take natural processes to produce fertile soil?

several centuries to several thousands of years

Which of the following would exhibit primary succession?

rock exposed by a retreating glacier

Which of the following would undergo secondary succession?

a heavily polluted stream that has been cleaned up

Ecologists would consider all of the following to be natural disturbances except

deforestation

The ability of a living system to resist change is an defined as

inertia

A sea otter is a(an)

keystone species

The changes in population size, density, dispersion, and age structure are known as

population dynamics

The most common pattern of population dispersion found in nature is

clumped

Which of the following is not a reason why organisms tend to live in clumps?

intraspecific competition decreases when living in a group

Emigration

is one-way movement of individuals out of a particular population to another area

The biotic potential of a population

is the maximum reproductive rate of a population

The intrinsic rate of increase (r)

is the rate at which a population would grow if it had unlimited resources

A single factor that limits the growth, abundance, or distribution of a species in an ecosystem is called

a limiting factor

Environmental resistance is enhanced by

a specialized niche

Carrying capacity refers to

the maximum size of population the environment will support

A logistic growth curve depicting a population that is limited by a definite carrying capacity is shaped like the letter

S

An exponential growth curve depicting an ever-growing population is shaped like the letter

J

A population crash occurs when

a population overshoots carrying capacity and environmental pressures cause effects

Density-dependent population controls include all of the following except

human destruction of habitat

Density-independent population controls include all of the following except

resource competition

Which of the following terms best describes the type of population change you would expect to find for a muskrat population in a state that has just outlawed trapping?

irruptive

Which of the following patterns would you expect to find for rabbits and coyotes in an undisturbed habitat?

cyclic

An r-strategist generally

is small and short-lived

K-strategists

are generally less adaptable to change than r-strategists

Which of the following best describes the survivorship curve you would expect to find for a mountain gorilla?

late loss

Which of the following best describes the survivorship curve you would expect to find for a fish?

early loss

Which of the following connections among population cycle, survival strategies, and survivorship curves would you most expect to see?

boom-and-bust; r-strategist; early-loss

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