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SOCIOLOGY.

Sociologists are most inclined to explain behavior in terms of:

b. roles and social structures.

A _____ is a specific position occupied by an individual in a society.

b. status

The ability to see the intimate realities of our own lives in the context of common social structures is what C. Wright Mills refers to as:

c. the sociological imagination

The social sciences rely on empirical research. This means that they

are based on systematic examination of evidence.

Which of the following is not considered a founder of sociology

d. Talcott Parsons.

The belief that the social world can be studied with the same scientific accuracy and assurance as the natural world is known as:

positivism

All of the following theoretical ideas are associated with Karl Marx EXCEPT

a. positivism

According to Durkheim, _____ suicide occurs when the institutions of society provide too little structure and poorly defined rules

b. anomic

Weber emphasized all of the following EXCEPT:

d. conflict as a mechanism of social change.

10. Weber argued that part of the ideological foundation for capitalism came from:

. Protestant religious values

Nobel Prize Winner, Jane Addams, was concerned with using social science research to do all of the following EXCEPT

end slavery.

Socialization refers to:

d. a process through which we learn the rules and practices of our culture.

In Freudian theory, the _____ is the conscious executive portion of self that decides the best course of action

. ego

The sociological theory of the self was developed by:

a. George Herbert Mead. b. Charles Horton Cooley

According to _____, socialization benefits the wealthy and powerful.

b. conflict theory

According to Cooley, we develop our self-concept:

c. by learning to see ourselves as we think others see us.

In Mead's theory, the "I" is the

spontaneous, creative part of the self.

Individuals of the same age and the same status are referred to as:

peer group

The idea that we know reality only in terms of our language is called the:

d. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

Which of the following is one of the top ten American values identified by the sociologist Robin Williams?

d. all of these listed are American values

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a moderate drinking culture?

d. Drinking is viewed as a bad thing in general

The wheel communication pattern is beneficial in a classroom because _______.

a. the teacher has the most knowledge

25. Which of the following is NOT true about people with high status

They are guaranteed to acquire more wealth.

Which of these statements about personal social networks in America is NOT true?

Women have much larger networks than do men

Consider this theory: Legal penalties for crack cocaine are much harsher than for similar amounts of powder cocaine because middle and upper class people prefer powder cocaine while most crack cocaine is consumed by lower class people. This theory was developed using which theoretical perspective?

b. Conflict

Consider this theory: A "glass ceiling" prevents women from rising to lead corporations or becoming President because women tend to select careers that allow them more time to care for their children and promote their husbands' careers. This theory was developed using which theoretical perspective?

a. Structural-Functional

The idea that we know reality only in terms of our language is called the:

d. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

Children who do not develop a bond with a caregiver during the first few months of life show severe developmental problems. This syndrome is ___________

failure to thrive

From each according to her or his ability, to each according to her or his work" is the guiding statement of ________:

b. applied communism.

Who wrote Democracy in America, the classic study of American values?

. Alexis de Tocqueville

Theories are __________.

c. explanations

A social psychology experiment showed that religious students walked by a man who had been hurt without stopping to help because they __________.

d. were distracted by being late to class

The Robbers Cave study examined how ____________.

boys at a summer camp react to competition and crisis

36. Zimbardo's Stanford Prison experiment showed that ___________.

c. normal Stanford students will abuse prisoners when assigned the role of prison guard

Social psychology experiments are most influential when they show that individual behavior _____________.

a. assumed to be caused by personality traits actually results from situational pressures

Results of the Sherman-Berk field experiment to assess the effectiveness of different types of police response to domestic violence calls suggested that __________.

a. arresting the accused abuser had a deterrent effect on future domestic violence

Cecilia Ridgeway's experiment showed that women can overcome resistance to their leadership at work when they display competence __________.

d. and also show they care about team success

40. In Hegel's dialectic, an idea clashes with its inherent contradiction. The contradictory idea is called _________.

a. an antithesis

The term "bourgeois" literally means

d. "of the town

Who wrote "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism"?

c. Max Weber

Which of the following concepts refers to the total way of life shared by members of a society

c. culture

Refrigerators, ovens, coffee pots, and stereos are all examples of what sociologists call

a. material culture

The term for the attitudes and knowledge that bring power and status to members of the upper class is

c. cultural capital

46. _____ focuses on the meanings that people find in culture, and how those meanings are created

Symbolic interactionism

The text argues that _____ help to explain what is common to humankind across societies but _____ explains why people and societies differ from one another.

b. biological factors; culture

The requirement that each cultural trait be evaluated in the context of its own culture is known as

d. cultural relativity

The tendency to view the norms and values of one's culture as absolute and to use them as a standard against which to judge the practices of other cultures is known as:

ethnocentrism.

_____ assumes that some human social behavior such as altruism, has evolved as a genetic adaptation.

. Sociobiology

Why would it be important for members of immigrant groups to teach their children their native language?

a. because language is the source of shared meanings and culture.

. Norms are defined as the:

shared rules about how people ought to think and act

Norms considered of vital importance for society are called:

d. mores.

Norms or rules that are officially enforced and sanctioned by society are known as

laws

Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between norms and law?

Not all norms are supported by law and not all laws are supported by norms.

The patterned behavior within the social structure

b. may be both constraining and enabling

A status is a

position in a group relative to other positions.

Which of the following is the best example of an ascribed status?

b. child

Which of these statements about the number of racial statuses in the U.S. is TRUE?

In 2000, the Census added the category of "mixed race", increasing the number of racial statuses.

Being a mother is no guarantee that a woman will fulfill the duties and obligations associated with motherhood. This illustrates that social structures do not always work in practice because

d. people occupy statuses, but perform roles.

When incompatible role demands develop within a single status, one experiences role

b. strain

In very simple societies:

all major social needs are met by the family and kinship.

A _____ would ask, "Who benefits from the current system of social institutions?"

a. conflict theorist

The increase in number and diversity of social institutions in society is primarily the result of:

b. the ability to generate an economic surplus

In _____ societies, a digging stick was used to cultivate the land and produce a surplus

a. horticultural

A complex class system was first seen in which type of society?

b. agricultural

The expectation that people will return favors and strive to maintain a balance of obligation in social relationships is called:

the norm of reciprocity

An exchange relationship persists:

b. only if each party to the interaction is getting something out of it.

Interaction that occurs when people work together to achieve shared goals is called:

d. cooperation.

When conflict takes place with outsiders

. it enhances solidarity within one's group

Which of the following is the best example of a primary group?

c. Joe, Bill, and Tom—college roommates for the past 3 years

Which of the following is the best example of a secondary group?

c. an introductory sociology class with 300 students

Which of the following communication structures allows the greatest equality of participation

b. the all-channel network

Which of the following has been found to contribute to cohesion among groups?

a clear distinction between insiders and outsiders

One sociological conclusion from the Asch experiment is that

people have a strong tendency to conform to the norms and expectations of the group.

Milgram found that conformity with directions to administer harmful shocks to other people was greatest when

a. an authority figure was in the room observing.

The most powerful method a group has to ensure that individuals go along with the group's opinions, even if they don't agree, is:

b. expulsion from the group.

In general, it appears that when most small groups make decisions, the members:

strive to reach a consensus

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