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what is not one of the 6 classes of nutrients?

fibers

what is a characteristic of an essential nutrient?

cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body

what most accurately describes the term organic?

substances possessing carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds

what nutrients does not yield energyduring its metabolism

vitamins

a weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcal which includes 30g of fat. Approx what% of the total energy is contributed by fat?

19%

what nutrient source yields more than 4 calories per gram

plant fats

a diet provides a total of 2200 kcal of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from prtein. How many grams of carbohydrates are contained in the diet?

220g

what is the kcal value of a meal supplying 110g of carbohydrates, 25g of protein, 20g of fat, and 5g of alcohol

755

when consumed in excess, all of the following [sugar, corn oil, alcohol] can be converted to body fat except

vitamin C

what results from the metabolism of energy nutrients

energy is released

what is the meaning of a double-blind experiment

neither subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in control or experiment group

short and medium chain triglycerides are transported the

vascular system

who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information

registered dietician

nutrient density refers to foods that

provide more nutrients that kcal relative to the RDA

what bread has the highest fiber content

whole-grain

what mineral is added in the enrichment process of refined flours

iron

a food is labeled ingredient list reads: wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in lowest amount?

cornstarch

what structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow

epiglottis

what is one function of the pyloric sphincter

prevents the contents of the intestine from backing up into the stomach

what structure seperates the colon from the small intestine

ileocecal valve

into what region of the intestinal tract does the stomach empty

duodenum

what is a bolus

portion of food swallowed at one time

after swallowing, in what order does food pass through the GI tract

stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon

a food label reports 15g of fat and 270 kcals per serving. What percentage of kcals come from fat?

50%

what is the function of mucus in the stomach

protects the stomach cells from gastric juices

what is the function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach

creates an optimum acidity

why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach

salivary enzyme does not work in an acid environment

what is one function of the gallbladder

stores bile

what is generally not digested but does stimulate intestinal muscle contractions

fiber

absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells does not occur by what mechanism

active diffusion

to assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is best to

combine different food types to enhance the absorption process

blood leaving the digestive system goes by way of a vein to the

liver

immediately after absorption, which circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats

lymphatic

what stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice

secretin

the presence of fat in the intestine stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release

cholecystokinin

when you are under great physical stress, what hormone is released quickly to stimulate an increase in blood glucose concentration

epinephrine

what is the primary function of insulin

lowers blood glucose levels

what is a typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose

blood glucose levels that fall too low signal the release of glucagons

when blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose

glucagon

what is the appropriate term to describe a food that contributes energy, but is virtually devoid of protein, vitamins, and minerals

empty kcal food

what is best known to result from regular ingestion of sugar

dental cavaties

according to most dietary guidelines, what percentage of the day's total energy intakeshould be furnished by carbohydrates

55-60

which of the following does NOT describe a function of fat?

best source of energy for the brain

a compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol would be known as a

triglyceride

in which form are most dietary lipids found?

triglycerides

which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?

monounsaturated

lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to the number of

double bonds

a major cause of rancidity of lipids in foods is exposure to

heat and oxygen

the following is associated with the presence of fat in the GI tract

slowing of the process of digestion and absorption

what type of nutrient is starch?

Complex carbohydrate

the following is a component of all three dietary disaccharides

glucose

what is the reaction that links two monosaccharides together?

condensation

is a by product of the condensation of two molecules of glucose

water

what is the composition of sucrose?

one glucose and one fructose

what is the composition of lactose?

one glucose and one galactose

the chemical reaction by which starch is split into monosaccharides is

hydrolysis

what is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units?

glycogen

a characteristic of dietary fiber

classified according to solubility in water

what is the first organ to receive carbohydrates absorbed from the intestine?

liver

what is not a symptom of lactose intolerance

constipation

gluconeogenisis is a term that describes the synthesis of

glucose from a non carbohydrate substance

proteins that inactivate foreign bacteria and viruses

antibodies

the primary organ for production of urea

liver

illustrates a deamination raction

removal of amino group from an amino acid

if the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will the course of action be?

protein synthesis will be limited

the chief factor that governs the quality of a food protein

essential amino acid content

what is the "limiting" amino acid in a protein

an essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place

condition associated with edema

below-normal concentration of blood protein which causes fluid to leak from the blood vessels

term that describes the quote "the evil spirit that infects the first child when the second child is born"

kwashiorkor

man consumes 65 grams of protein and a total of 2,700 kcal per day, approx what percentage of energy would be derived from protein?

10

what term is specific to reactions in which simple compounds are combined into more complex molecules?

anabolic

the formation of glycogen by the liver cell is an example of

anabolism

what would be approx weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500kcal/day?

4 lbs

describes the process of thermogenisis

generation of heat

what fraction of the day's energy expenditure of the average person is represented by the basal metabolism?

about 2/3

defines central obesity

storage of excess fat around the central part of the body

defines the body's set point

point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight.

promotes fat storage in adipocytes

lipoprotein lipase

what percentage of people who lose weight by dieting fail to maintain the wight loss?

95%

defines weight cycling

a series of weight loss and regain episodes that affects body composition and metabolism

the best approach to weight loss

reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure

what is the primary excretory rout for the water-soluble vitamins?

kidney

explains why vitamin B deficiencies lead to lack of energy

Coenzymes need for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts

requirement for thiamin

energy is released from energy-yielding nutrients

characteristic shared by olive oil and canola oil

both contain high levels of monosaturated fatty acids

what lipid is an essential nutrient?

Linoleic acid

what characteristic is shared by cholesterol [sterol] and lecithin [phospholipids]?

both are synthesized in the body

what type of compound is lecithin?

phospholipid

what cannot be found in plants?

cholesterol

contains the least cholesterol

steamed corn

characteristic of cholesterol?

it is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis

what part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?

small intestine

what is the storage site of bile?

gallbladder

after a meal, most of the fat that eventually empties into the blood is in the form of particles known as

chylomicrons

what lipoprotein contains the highest percentage of cholesterol?

Low density lipoprotein [LDL]

what lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery of the body?

High Density Lipoprotein [HDL]

a low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of

High Density Lipoprotein

what is the function of adipose cell hormone-sensitive lipase?

hydrolyzes triglycerides to provide fatty acids for other cells

what is a substance that is converted to Vitamin A in the body?

Beta-Carotene

What is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of Vit A?

Xeropthalmia

Keratinization is the result of

Deficiency of Vit A

what is most likely to induce Vit. A toxicity in adults?

consuming high-doses of Vit. A supplements

what can be used by the body to synthesize Vitamin D?

exposure to sunlight

in what tissue must a molecule of Vit D be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active?

liver and kidney

in what system would effects of Vit. D deficiency most readily be observed?

skeletal

what condition or disease is known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient?

osteomalacia and rickets

the main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as an

antioxidant

what disorder may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?

erythrocyte hemolysis

in what chief capacity does vitamin K function?

blood clotting

what vitamin is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?

Vitamin K

there is more of this mineral in your body than any other

calcium

ions that carry positive charge

Cations

major extracellular cation

sodium

what is the major extracellular anion?

chloride

mostly all of the calcium in the body is used to

provide rigidity for the bones and teeth

what is not a process that involves calcium?

pH regulation

what regulates the level of calcium in the blood

parathormone and calcitonin

people who have had their stomach and small intestine removed must receive supplement injections of which Vitamin?

Vitamin B12

What iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream?

hemoglobin

what type of anemia results from iron deficiency?

hypochromic microcytic

what is the name given to the ingestion of nonnutritive substances?

pica

in the United States, iron is currently added to what food?

bread and cereal

a child diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia would most likely benefit from increasing the consumption of

red meat

what is know to enhance iron absorption?

foods containing Vitamin C

Beriberi --> TPP

thiamin Vitamin B

Pellagra --> NAD

niacin

perniciona anemia --> Cabalamin

vitamin B12

hemorrhagic diseas of the newborn

Phylloquinon/menadione [vitamin K]

what mineral is part of vitamin B12?

cobalt

condensation of glucose and fructose

sucrose

hydrolysis of maltose yields to two molecules of

glucose

following absorption, galactose is converted into

glucose... in the liver

complete hydrolysis of amylose yields to

glucose

galactose and glucose condense to form

lactose

the circulation carbohydrate is

glucose

what is the coenzyme form of thiamin?

thiamin pyrophosphate

Beriberi results from a deficiency

thiamin

the wernicke-korsakoff syndrome is often observed in poorly nourished alcohol abusers. it is known to respond to supplements of

thiamin

the signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are known collectively as

riboflavinosis

what is NOT a common sign of pellagra?

demineralization

what vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A?

pantothenic acid

a protein that binds with biotin [thus inhibiting absorption] is found in which food?

raw egg whites

what is associated with a deficiency of folate?

large-cell type anemia

what is required for the absorption of dietary Vitamin B12?

intrinsic factor

a similar type of anemia is produced when there is deficiency of either

vitamin b12 or folate

what is the function of the intrinsic factor in vitamin B12?

it attaches to the vitamin thereby allowing absorption from the intestines

in what capacity does Vitamin C function?

collagen formation

what is not a fat soluble vitamin?

cyanocobalamin

Vitamin A doesn't play an important role in what process?

blood clotting

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