what is not one of the 6 classes of nutrients?
what is a characteristic of an essential nutrient?
cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body
what most accurately describes the term organic?
substances possessing carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds
what nutrients does not yield energyduring its metabolism
a weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcal which includes 30g of fat. Approx what% of the total energy is contributed by fat?
what nutrient source yields more than 4 calories per gram
a diet provides a total of 2200 kcal of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from prtein. How many grams of carbohydrates are contained in the diet?
what is the kcal value of a meal supplying 110g of carbohydrates, 25g of protein, 20g of fat, and 5g of alcohol
when consumed in excess, all of the following [sugar, corn oil, alcohol] can be converted to body fat except
what results from the metabolism of energy nutrients
energy is released
what is the meaning of a double-blind experiment
neither subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in control or experiment group
short and medium chain triglycerides are transported the
who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information
nutrient density refers to foods that
provide more nutrients that kcal relative to the RDA
what bread has the highest fiber content
what mineral is added in the enrichment process of refined flours
a food is labeled ingredient list reads: wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in lowest amount?
what structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow
what is one function of the pyloric sphincter
prevents the contents of the intestine from backing up into the stomach
what structure seperates the colon from the small intestine
into what region of the intestinal tract does the stomach empty
what is a bolus
portion of food swallowed at one time
after swallowing, in what order does food pass through the GI tract
stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
a food label reports 15g of fat and 270 kcals per serving. What percentage of kcals come from fat?
what is the function of mucus in the stomach
protects the stomach cells from gastric juices
what is the function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach
creates an optimum acidity
why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach
salivary enzyme does not work in an acid environment
what is one function of the gallbladder
what is generally not digested but does stimulate intestinal muscle contractions
absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells does not occur by what mechanism
to assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is best to
combine different food types to enhance the absorption process
blood leaving the digestive system goes by way of a vein to the
immediately after absorption, which circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats
what stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice
the presence of fat in the intestine stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release
when you are under great physical stress, what hormone is released quickly to stimulate an increase in blood glucose concentration
what is the primary function of insulin
lowers blood glucose levels
what is a typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose
blood glucose levels that fall too low signal the release of glucagons
when blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose
what is the appropriate term to describe a food that contributes energy, but is virtually devoid of protein, vitamins, and minerals
empty kcal food
what is best known to result from regular ingestion of sugar
according to most dietary guidelines, what percentage of the day's total energy intakeshould be furnished by carbohydrates
which of the following does NOT describe a function of fat?
best source of energy for the brain
a compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol would be known as a
in which form are most dietary lipids found?
which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?
lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to the number of
a major cause of rancidity of lipids in foods is exposure to
heat and oxygen
the following is associated with the presence of fat in the GI tract
slowing of the process of digestion and absorption
what type of nutrient is starch?
the following is a component of all three dietary disaccharides
what is the reaction that links two monosaccharides together?
is a by product of the condensation of two molecules of glucose
what is the composition of sucrose?
one glucose and one fructose
what is the composition of lactose?
one glucose and one galactose
the chemical reaction by which starch is split into monosaccharides is
what is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units?
a characteristic of dietary fiber
classified according to solubility in water
what is the first organ to receive carbohydrates absorbed from the intestine?
what is not a symptom of lactose intolerance
gluconeogenisis is a term that describes the synthesis of
glucose from a non carbohydrate substance
proteins that inactivate foreign bacteria and viruses
the primary organ for production of urea
illustrates a deamination raction
removal of amino group from an amino acid
if the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will the course of action be?
protein synthesis will be limited
the chief factor that governs the quality of a food protein
essential amino acid content
what is the "limiting" amino acid in a protein
an essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place
condition associated with edema
below-normal concentration of blood protein which causes fluid to leak from the blood vessels
term that describes the quote "the evil spirit that infects the first child when the second child is born"
man consumes 65 grams of protein and a total of 2,700 kcal per day, approx what percentage of energy would be derived from protein?
what term is specific to reactions in which simple compounds are combined into more complex molecules?
the formation of glycogen by the liver cell is an example of
what would be approx weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500kcal/day?
describes the process of thermogenisis
generation of heat
what fraction of the day's energy expenditure of the average person is represented by the basal metabolism?
defines central obesity
storage of excess fat around the central part of the body
defines the body's set point
point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight.
promotes fat storage in adipocytes
what percentage of people who lose weight by dieting fail to maintain the wight loss?
defines weight cycling
a series of weight loss and regain episodes that affects body composition and metabolism
the best approach to weight loss
reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
what is the primary excretory rout for the water-soluble vitamins?
explains why vitamin B deficiencies lead to lack of energy
Coenzymes need for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts
requirement for thiamin
energy is released from energy-yielding nutrients
characteristic shared by olive oil and canola oil
both contain high levels of monosaturated fatty acids
what lipid is an essential nutrient?
what characteristic is shared by cholesterol [sterol] and lecithin [phospholipids]?
both are synthesized in the body
what type of compound is lecithin?
what cannot be found in plants?
contains the least cholesterol
characteristic of cholesterol?
it is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis
what part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?
what is the storage site of bile?
after a meal, most of the fat that eventually empties into the blood is in the form of particles known as
what lipoprotein contains the highest percentage of cholesterol?
Low density lipoprotein [LDL]
what lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery of the body?
High Density Lipoprotein [HDL]
a low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of
High Density Lipoprotein
what is the function of adipose cell hormone-sensitive lipase?
hydrolyzes triglycerides to provide fatty acids for other cells
what is a substance that is converted to Vitamin A in the body?
What is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of Vit A?
Keratinization is the result of
Deficiency of Vit A
what is most likely to induce Vit. A toxicity in adults?
consuming high-doses of Vit. A supplements
what can be used by the body to synthesize Vitamin D?
exposure to sunlight
in what tissue must a molecule of Vit D be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active?
liver and kidney
in what system would effects of Vit. D deficiency most readily be observed?
what condition or disease is known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient?
osteomalacia and rickets
the main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as an
what disorder may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?
in what chief capacity does vitamin K function?
what vitamin is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
there is more of this mineral in your body than any other
ions that carry positive charge
major extracellular cation
what is the major extracellular anion?
mostly all of the calcium in the body is used to
provide rigidity for the bones and teeth
what is not a process that involves calcium?
what regulates the level of calcium in the blood
parathormone and calcitonin
people who have had their stomach and small intestine removed must receive supplement injections of which Vitamin?
What iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream?
what type of anemia results from iron deficiency?
what is the name given to the ingestion of nonnutritive substances?
in the United States, iron is currently added to what food?
bread and cereal
a child diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia would most likely benefit from increasing the consumption of
what is know to enhance iron absorption?
foods containing Vitamin C
Beriberi --> TPP
thiamin Vitamin B
Pellagra --> NAD
perniciona anemia --> Cabalamin
hemorrhagic diseas of the newborn
Phylloquinon/menadione [vitamin K]
what mineral is part of vitamin B12?
condensation of glucose and fructose
hydrolysis of maltose yields to two molecules of
following absorption, galactose is converted into
glucose... in the liver
complete hydrolysis of amylose yields to
galactose and glucose condense to form
the circulation carbohydrate is
what is the coenzyme form of thiamin?
Beriberi results from a deficiency
the wernicke-korsakoff syndrome is often observed in poorly nourished alcohol abusers. it is known to respond to supplements of
the signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are known collectively as
what is NOT a common sign of pellagra?
what vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A?
a protein that binds with biotin [thus inhibiting absorption] is found in which food?
raw egg whites
what is associated with a deficiency of folate?
large-cell type anemia
what is required for the absorption of dietary Vitamin B12?
a similar type of anemia is produced when there is deficiency of either
vitamin b12 or folate
what is the function of the intrinsic factor in vitamin B12?
it attaches to the vitamin thereby allowing absorption from the intestines
in what capacity does Vitamin C function?
what is not a fat soluble vitamin?
Vitamin A doesn't play an important role in what process?
what nutrient is used to form ketones?
approximately how many kcalories are contained in a pound of fat?
what is the function of lipoproteins lipase?
hydrolyzes blood triglycerides for uptake into cells
how many grams of fat would be contained in an 800 kcalorie meal which provides 50% from carbohydrates, 20% from protein and the remainder from fat
a meal providing 1200 kcalories contains 10g of saturated fats, 14 g of monosaturated fats, and 20 g of polyunsaturated fats. what is the percentage of energy supplied by the lipids?
what element is found in proteins but NOT in carbohydrates and fats
what is not an essential amino acid in human nutrition