Biology Exam I Fall 2010

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Which of the following properties or processes do we associate with living things?
A) growth and reproduction
B) evolutionary adaptations
C) energy processing
D) responding to the environment
E) all of the above

all of the above

There are 20 different amino acids. What makes one amino acid different from another?
A) different amino groups attached to an alpha (α) carbon
B) different asymmetric carbons
C) different alpha (α) carbons
D) different carboxyl groups attached to an alpha (α) carbon
E) different side chains (R groups) attached to an alpha (α) carbon

different side chains (R groups) attached to an alpha (α) carbon

A strong covalent bond between amino acids that functions in maintaining a polypeptide's specific three-dimensional shape is a (an)
A) disulfide bond
B) hydrophobic interaction.
C) hydrogen bond.
D) ionic bond.
E) van der Waals interaction.

disulfide bond

Which of the following statements concerning prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is not correct?
A) DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is present in both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
B) Prokaryotic cells lack a membrane-bound nucleus.
C) DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is present in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
D) Prokaryotic cells contain small membrane-enclosed organelles.
E) Eukaryotic cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus.

Prokaryotic cells contain small membrane-enclosed organelles.

Increasing the substrate concentration in an enzymatic reaction could overcome which of the following?
A) saturation of the enzyme activity
B) denaturization of the enzyme
C) insufficient cofactors
D) allosteric inhibition
E) competitive inhibition

competitive inhibition

The citric acid cycle is a metabolic pathway that is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation.
A) True B) False

False

The direct energy source that drives ATP synthesis during respiratory oxidative phosphorylation is the difference in H+ concentrations on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A) True B) False

True

Phospholipids are the most abundant molecules in cell membranes.
A) True B) False

True

The mechanism in which the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in the pathway is known as
A) reversible inhibition.
B) feedback inhibition.
C) metabolic inhibition. D) allosteric inhibition.
E) noncooperative inhibition.

feedback inhibition.

Cyanobacteria are
A) chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition.
B) parasitic chemoheterotrophs.
C) photoheterotrophs.
D) photoautotrophs.
E) chemoautotrophs.

photoautotrophs.

Which statement about the domain Archaea is false?
A) Some archaeans can obtain energy from H2 and produce methane as a waste product.
B) Some archaeans are adapted to waters with temperatures that would kill the cells of most organisms.
C) Some archaeans can inhabit solutions that are nearly 30% salt.
D) The genomes of archaeans are unique, containing no genes that originated within bacteria.
E) Genetic prospecting has recently revealed the existence of many previously unknown archean species.

The genomes of archaeans are unique, containing no genes that originated within bacteria.

Which of the following statements describes NAD+?
A) NAD+ can donate electrons for use in oxidative phosphorylation.
B) NAD+ has more chemical energy than NADH.
C) NAD+ is reduced to NADH during both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.
D) NAD+ is reduced by the action of hydrogenases.
E) In the absence of NAD+, glycolysis can still function.

NAD+ is reduced to NADH during both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.

The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?
A) the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
B) glycolysis
C) the citric acid cycle
D) the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP
E) accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain

accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain

Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O2) is present or absent?
A) electron transport
B) the citric acid cycle C) chemiosmosis
D) oxidative phosphorylation
E) glycolysis

glycolysis

Fossilized stromatolites provide evidence that prokaryotes first inhabited the earth approximately 3.5 billion years ago.
A) True B) False

True

In cellular respiration, pyruvate enters the mitochondrion through facilitated diffusion.
A) True B) False

False

Anabolic pathways are usually spontaneous chemical reactions.
A) True B) False

False

The voltage across a plasma membrane is called a membrane potential.
A) True B) False

True

A water sample from a hot thermal vent contained a single-celled organism that had a cell wall but lacked a nucleus. What is its most likely classification?
A) Archaea
B) Protista
C) Eukarya
D) Fungi
E) Animalia

Archaea

All of the following statements are part of Charles Darwin's concept of natural selection except
A) Slight inheritable variations within a population may make an individual significantly more or less likely
to survive in its environment, and thus to reproduce.
B) Most individuals in a species do not survive to reproduce.
C) Characteristics of organisms are inherited as genes on chromosomes.
D) Better adapted members of a species will survive and reproduce more successfully.
E) Every organism has the potential to produce more offspring than the local environment can support.

Characteristics of organisms are inherited as genes on chromosomes.

Approximately what percentage of the energy of glucose (C6H12O6) is transferred to ATP as a result of the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water in cellular respiration?
A) 76%
B) 25%
C) 4%
D) 40%
E) 98%

40%

In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of
A) ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol).
B) ATP, pyruvate, and oxygen.
C) ATP, pyruvate, and acetyl CoA.
D) ATP, NADH, and pyruvate.
E) ATP, CO2, and lactate.

ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol).

In the context of science, a theory is testable, predictive, and supported by a large body of evidence.
A) True B) False

True

Approximately 1/3 of the CO2 emitted from burning fossil fuels is absorbed by oceans and is making the water less acidic.
A) True B) False

False

The DNA code has not proven to be very useful for constructing evolutionary trees.
A) True B) False

False

Analysis of virus sequence data indicated that the five Bulgarian nurses and the Palestinian doctor infected children at the Al-Fateh Hospital in Libya with HIV.
A) True B) False

False

Within ecosystems, chemical nutrients are recycled and energy flows from sunlight to producers and then to consumers.
A) True B) False

True

In the presence of oxygen, an increase in the amount ATP in a cell would be expected to activate phosphofructokinase and thus increase the rates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.
A) True B) False

False

**Shown here are the structures of glucose and fructose. These two molecules are
A) structural isomers.
B) enantiomers.
C) nonisotopic isomers. D) geometric isotopes. E) geometric isomers.

structural isomers.

An example of a hydrogen bond is the bond between A) C and H in methane (CH4).
B) one H and the O in a single water molecule. C) the two hydrogen atoms in a molecule of hydrogen gas (H2).
D) the H of one water molecule and the O of another water molecule.
E) Na+and Cl- in salt.

the H of one water molecule and the O of another water molecule.

Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydrogen ions [H+]?
A) vinegar at pH 3
B) tomato juice at pH 4 C) black coffee at pH 5
D) household bleach at pH 12
E) gastric juice at pH 2

gastric juice at pH 2

Which of the following statements correctly describes some aspect of protein disposal from prokaryotic cells?
A) Proteins that are excreted by prokaryotes are synthesized on ribosomes that are bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane.
B) Prokaryotes are unlikely to be able to excrete proteins because they lack an endomembrane system. C) Prokaryotes contain large pores in their plasma membrane that permit the movement of proteins out of
the cell.
D) The mechanism of protein excretion in prokaryotes is probably the same as that in eukaryotes.
E) In prokaryotes, the ribosomes that are used for the synthesis of secreted proteins are located outside of
the cell.

Proteins that are excreted by prokaryotes are synthesized on ribosomes that are bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane

**Which molecule has hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties and would be found in plasma membranes?
A) 12
B) 5
C) 1
D) 14
E) 6

5

**Which of the following combinations could be linked together to form a nucleotide?
A) 12, 14, and 15
B) 11, 12, and 13
C) 3, 7, and 8
D) 1, 2, and 11
E) 5, 9, and 10

11, 12, and 13

**Which of the following molecules act as building blocks (monomers) of polypeptides?
A) 11, 12, and 13
B) 7, 8, and 13
C) 12, 13, and 15
D) 2, 7, and 8
E) 1, 4, and 6

2, 7, and 8

Evolution is biology's core theme that ties together all the other themes. This is because evolution explains
A) how organisms become adapted to their environment through the differential reproductive success of
varying individuals.
B) why distantly related organisms sometimes resemble each other.
C) explains why some organisms have traits in common.
D) the unity and diversity of life.
E) all of the above

all of the above

What is a hypothesis?
A) the same thing as an unproven theory
B) a verifiable observation sensed directly, or sensed indirectly with the aid of scientific instrumentation
C) a tentative explanation that can be tested and is falsifiable
D) a fact based on qualitative data that is testable
E) a fact based on quantitative data that is falsifiable

a tentative explanation that can be tested and is falsifiable

A controlled experiment is one that
A) may include experimental groups and control groups tested in parallel.
B) is supervised by an experienced scientist.
C) proceeds slowly enough that a scientist can make careful records of the results.
D) is repeated many times to make sure the results are accurate.
E) keeps all environmental variables constant.

may include experimental groups and control groups tested in parallel.

Oxygen (O) is much more electronegative than hydrogen (H). Which of the following statements is correct about the atoms in water (H2O)?
A) The oxygen atom has a strong positive charge.
B) Each hydrogen atom has a partial positive charge.
C) Each hydrogen atom has a slight negative charge.
D) There are covalent bonds between the hydrogen atoms.
E) The oxygen atom has a partial positive charge.

Each hydrogen atom has a partial positive charge.

Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through desmosomes.
A) True B) False

False

Capsules and fimbriae are two structures that play direct roles in permitting bacteria to adhere to each other or to other surfaces. A) True B) False

True

Chemical energy is potential energy that is available for release in a chemical reaction.
A) True B) False

True

Ribosomal RNA sequence data were used to divide prokaryotes into two domains - the Bacteria and Archaea.
A) True B) False

True

When two atoms are equally electronegative, they will interact to form A) polar covalent bonds.
B) ionic bonds.
C) ions.
D) equal numbers of isotopes.
E) nonpolar covalent bonds.

nonpolar covalent bonds.

Which of the following is not considered to be a weak molecular interaction?
A) a hydrogen bond
B) a covalent bond
C) an ionic bond in the presence of water
D) a van der Waals interaction
E) A and Bonly

a covalent bond

Which of the following is a compartment that often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?
A) vacuole
B) mitochondrion
C) peroxisome
D) lysosome
E) Golgi apparatus

vacuole

**For the following questions, match the labeled component of the cell membrane with its description:
cholesterol
A) B) C) D) E)

E

**For the following questions, match the labeled component of the cell membrane with its description:
fiber of the extracellular matrix
A) B) C) D) E)

A

How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell?
A) 8
B) 2
C) 4
D) 1
E) 3

4

Several seriously epidemic viral diseases of earlier centuries were then incurable because they resulted in severe dehydration due to vomiting and diarrhea. Today they are usually not fatal because we have developed which of the following?
A) antiviral medications that are efficient and work well with all viruses
B) antibiotics against the viruses in question
C) intravenous feeding techniques
D) hydrating drinks that include high concentrations of salts and glucose
E) medication to prevent blood loss

hydrating drinks that include high concentrations of salts and glucose

Which of the following statements regarding pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis is true?
A) pinocytosis increases the surface area of the plasma membrane whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis
decreases the plasma membrane surface area.
B) pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis offers more selectivity.
C) pinocytosis requires cellular energy, but receptor-mediated endocytosis does not.
D) pinocytosis can concentrate substances from the extracellular fluid, but receptor-mediated endocytosis
cannot.
E) pinocytosis brings only water into the cell, but receptor-mediated endocytosis brings in other molecules
as well.

pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis offers more selectivity.

Which of the following statements is true concerning catabolic pathways?
A) They are usually coupled with anabolic pathways to which they supply energy in the form of ATP.
B) They build up complex molecules such as protein from simpler compounds.
C) They combine molecules into more energy-rich molecules.
D) They are spontaneous and do not need enzyme catalysis.
E) They are endergonic.

They are usually coupled with anabolic pathways to which they supply energy in the form of ATP.

Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true?
A) Enzymes change the direction of chemical reactions.
B) Enzymes decrease the free energy change of a reaction.
C) Enzymes increase the rate of reaction by lowering the energy of activation.
D) Enzymes prevent changes in substrate concentrations.
E) Enzymes are permanently altered by the reactions they catalyze.

Enzymes increase the rate of reaction by lowering the energy of activation.

Where does glycolysis takes place?
A) mitochondrial outer membrane
B) mitochondrial intermembrane space
C) mitochondrial inner membrane
D) cytosol
E) mitochondrial matrix

cytosol

In Darwin's thinking, the more closely related two different organisms are, the
A) less similar their DNA sequences are.
B) more recently they shared a common ancestor.
C) less likely they are to have the same genes in common.
D) more similar their habitats are.
E) more similar they are in size.

more recently they shared a common ancestor.

Which statement about natural selection is most correct?
A) Natural selection is the sole means by which populations can evolve.
B) Adaptations beneficial at one time should generally be beneficial during all other times as well.
C) Different species that occupy the same habitat will adapt to that habitat by undergoing the same genetic
changes.
D) Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring, and thus contribute more to the next generation's gene
pool, than do poorly adapted individuals.
E) Adaptations beneficial in one habitat should generally be beneficial in all other habitats as well.

Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring, and thus contribute more to the next generation's gene
pool, than do poorly adapted individuals.

Pure, freshly-distilled water has a pH of 7. This means that
A) the concentration of OH- ions in the water is 7 times the concentration of H+ ions in the water.
B) the concentration of H+ ions in the water is 7 times the concentration of OH- ions in the water.
C) there are no OH- ions in the water.
D) there are no H+ ions in the water.
E) the concentration of H+ ions in the water equals the concentration of OH- ions in the water.

the concentration of H+ ions in the water equals the concentration of OH- ions in the water.

Which of the following statements best describes the carbon atoms present in you?
A) They are ultimately derived from carbon dioxide.
B) They were incorporated into organic molecules by plants.
C) They were processed into sugars through photosynthesis.
D) Only A and C are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.

A, B, and C are correct.

**The two molecules shown here are best described as:
A) structural isomers.
B) geometric isomers.
C) radioactive isotopes. D) enantiomers.
E) nonisotopic isomers.

geometric isomers.

Altering which of the following levels of structural organization could change the function of a protein?
A) secondary
B) tertiary
C) quaternary
D) primary
E) all of the above

all of the above

Research indicates that Albuterol, a drug used to relax bronchial muscles, improving airflow and thus offering relief from asthma, consists only of one enantiomer, the R-form. Why is it important for this drug to consist of only one enantiomeric form, rather than a mixture of enantiomers?
A) It is impossible to synthesize mixtures of enantiomers.
B) Albuterol is an example of a compound for which only one enantiomer exists.
C) Only the R-form of Albuterol has been studied; until more information is available, physicians prefer to
use the pure R-form.
D) Different enantiomers may have different or opposite physiological effects.
E) It is much less expensive to synthesize one enantiomer at a time.

Different enantiomers may have different or opposite physiological effects.

Which of the following is true of cellulose?
A) It is a storage polysaccharide for energy in plant cells.
B) It is a major structural component of plant cell walls.
C) It is a storage polysaccharide for energy in animal cells.
D) It is a polymer composed of sucrose monomers.
E) It is a major structural component of animal cell plasma membranes.

It is a major structural component of plant cell walls.

**Which molecule is an alcohol?
A) B) C) D) E)

A

**Which molecule can increase the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution and is therefore an organic acid?
A) B) C) D) E)

D

**Which molecule contains an amino functional group, but is not an amino acid? A) B) C) D) E)

E

All of the following statements concerning saturated fats are true except
A) They contain more hydrogen than unsaturated fats having the same number of carbon atoms.
B) They are more common in animals than in plants.
C) They generally solidify at room temperature.
D) They are one of several factors that contribute to heart disease and strokes.
E) They have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids.

They have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids.

The advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy is that
A) light microscopy allows one to view dynamic processes in the living cells.
B) light microscopy provides for higher resolving power than electron microscopy.
C) light microscopy provides for higher magnification than electron microscopy.
D) A and B
E) B and C

light microscopy allows one to view dynamic processes in the living cells.

Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?
A) glucose
B) starches
C) lipids
D) proteins
E) steroids

proteins

Science requires that hypothesis be testable and falsifiable and that observations be repeatable.
A) True B) False

True

Buffers are substances that help resist shifts in pH by donating H+ to a solution when they have been depleted and by accepting H+ when they are in excess.
A) True B) False

True

Hydrocarbons are insoluble in water because the majority of their bonds are non-polar covalent carbon-to- hydrogen linkages.
A) True B) False

True

Testosterone and estradiol are phospholipids.
A) True B) False

False

The most common compound in the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria is peptidoglycan. A) True B) False

True

The α helix and the β pleated sheet contribute to tertiary (3°) protein structure.
A) True B) False

False

The chemical reactions involved in respiration are virtually identical between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotic cells, ATP is synthesized primarily on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Where are the corresponding reactions likely to occur in prokaryotic respiration?
A) on the inner mitochondrial membrane
B) on the inner plasma membrane
C) on the endoplasmic reticulum
D) on the inner nuclear envelope
E) in the cytoplasm

on the inner plasma membrane

The hydrogenation of vegetable oil results in which of the following?
A) the oil (fat) being a solid at room temperature B) an increased risk of heart disease and stroke C) saturated fats and unsaturated fats with trans double bonds
D) A and C only
E) A, B, and C

A, B, and C

All of the following contain amino acids except
A) cholesterol.
B) enzymes.
C) antibodies.
D) hemoglobin.
E) insulin.

cholesterol.

**If you examine side A after 3 days, you should find
A) a decrease in the concentration of NaCl and glucose and an increase in the water level.
B) no net change in the system.
C) a decrease in the concentration of NaCl, an increase in water level, and no change in the concentration of
glucose.
D) no change in the concentration of NaCl and glucose and an increase in the water level.
E) a decrease in the concentration of NaCl and a decrease in the water level.

a decrease in the concentration of NaCl and a decrease in the water level.

The molecule that functions as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction
A) loses electrons and gains energy.
B) loses electrons and loses energy.
C) gains electrons and gains energy.
D) neither gains nor loses electrons, but gains or loses energy.
E) gains electrons and loses energy.

loses electrons and loses energy.

Which of the following best describes the flow of information in eukaryotic cells?
A) RNA →󲐀 proteins → DNA
B) proteins →󲐀 DNA →󲐀 RNA
C) DNA →󲐀 RNA →󲐀 proteins
D) DNA →󲐀 proteins →󲐀 RNA
E) RNA →󲐀 DNA →󲐀 proteins

DNA →󲐀 RNA →󲐀 proteins

The element nitrogen is present in all of the following except
A) nucleic acids.
B) monosaccharides.
C) amino acids.
D) proteins.
E) DNA.

monosaccharides.

**In this evolutionary tree, the mouse and the human are sister groups.
A) True B) False

True

**In this evolutionary tree, the fish is the ingroup.
A) True B) False

False

**Based on this tree, you can conclude that the frog is more closely related to the human than it is to the fish.
A) True B) False

True

Mutation, migration, natural selection, and random genetic drift can change the genetic makeup of a population.
A) True B) False

True

A monophyletic clade consists of an ancestor species and all of its descendents.
A) True B) False

True

Which type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?
A) lysosome
B) ribosome
C) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
D) contractile vacuole
E) mitochondrion

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Which of the following contains its own DNA and ribosomes?
A) vacuole
B) mitochondrion
C) Golgi apparatus
D) lysosome
E) peroxisome

mitochondrion

Which of the following statements is correct about diffusion?
A) It requires integral proteins in the cell membrane.
B) It requires an expenditure of energy by the cell.
C) It is an active process in which molecules move from a region of lower concentration to one of higher
concentration.
D) It is very rapid over long distances.
E) It is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

It is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

The extracellular matrix is thought to participate in the regulation of animal cell behavior by communicating information from the outside to the inside of the cell via which of the following?
A) plasmodesmata
B) DNA and RNA
C) integrins
D) the nucleus
E) gap junctions

integrins

Which of the following would likely move through the lipid bilayer of a plasma membrane most rapidly?
A) an amino acid
B) glucose
C) K+
D) CO2
E) starch

CO2

Of the following functions, which is most important for the glycoproteins and glycolipids of animal cell membranes?
A) maintaining membrane fluidity at low temperatures
B) maintaining the integrity of a fluid mosaic membrane
C) active transport of molecules against their concentration gradients
D) a cell's ability to distinguish one type of neighboring cell from another
E) facilitated diffusion of molecules down their concentration gradients

a cell's ability to distinguish one type of neighboring cell from another

Which of the following is a characteristic feature of a carrier protein in a plasma membrane?
A) It requires the expenditure of cellular energy to function.
B) It exhibits a specificity for a particular type of molecule.
C) It has few, if any, hydrophobic amino acids. D) It works against diffusion.
E) It is a peripheral membrane protein

It exhibits a specificity for a particular type of molecule.

Which of the following statements describes the results of this reaction?
C6H12O6 +6O2 →6CO2 +6H2O+Energy
A) C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced.
B) O2 is oxidized and H2O is reduced.
C) C6H12O6 is reduced and CO2 is oxidized.
D) O2 is reduced and CO2 is oxidized.
E) CO2 is reduced and O2 is oxidized.

C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced.

**Which of the following terms best describes the reaction?
A) exergonic
B) anabolic
C) endergonic
D) allosteric
E) nonspontaneous

exergonic

**Which of the following represents the ΔG of the reaction?
A)a B)b C)c D)d E)e

d

**Assume that the reaction has a ΔG of -5.6 kcal/mol. Which of the following would be true?
A) The reaction would result in products (C + D) with a greater free-energy content than in the initial
reactants (A + B).
B) The reaction could be coupled to power an exergonic reaction with a ΔG of +8.8 kcal/mol.
C) The reaction could be coupled to power an endergonic reaction with a ΔG of +6.2 kcal/mol.
D) The reaction would result in an increase in entropy (S) and a decrease in the total energy content (H) of
the system.
E) The reaction would result in a decrease in entropy (S) and an increase in the total energy content (H) of the system.

The reaction would result in an increase in entropy (S) and a decrease in the total energy content (H) of
the system.

Microfilaments play an important role in muscle contraction and in cell motility.
A) True B) False

True

Intermediate filaments move chromosomes during cell division.
A) True B) False

False

The primary ecological role of prokaryotes is breaking down organic matter.
A) True B) False

True

The proteins of the electron transport chain are located in the matrix of the mitochondia.
A) True B) False

False

The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals makes the membrane less flexible, allowing it to sustain greater pressure from within the cell.
A) True B) False

False

According to the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes, membrane phospholipids can move laterally along the plane of the membrane.
A) True B) False

True

All living organisms are energy transformers.
A) True B) False

True

As proteins are modified within the Golgi apparatus, they are moved in a cis-to-trans direction.
A) True B) False

True

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration?
A) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle
B) oxidative phosphorylation and fermentation C) fermentation and glycolysis D) the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation E) glycolysis and the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle

Cellular respiration harvests the most chemical energy from which of the following? A) substrate-level phosphorylation
B) oxidative phosphorylation
C) generating carbon dioxide and oxygen in the electron transport chain D) converting oxygen to ATP E) transferring electrons from organic molecules to pyruvate

oxidative phosphorylation

How can prokaryotes be considered to be more successful on Earth than humans?
A) Prokaryotes are much more numerous and have more biomass.
B) Prokaryotes are more diverse in metabolism.
C) Prokaryotes occupy more diverse habitats.
D) Only B and C are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.

A, B, and C are correct.

Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a payoff phase?
A) It both splits molecules and assembles molecules.
B) It shifts molecules from cytosol to mitochondrion.
C) It uses stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP.
D) It attaches and detaches phosphate groups.
E) It uses glucose and generates pyruvate.

It uses stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP.

Horizontal gene transfer occurred between Bacteria and Eukarya billions of years ago.
A) True B) False

True

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus make up 96% of living matter.
A) True B) False

False

Which of the following intermediary metabolites enters the citric acid cycle and is formed, in part, by the removal of a carbon (CO2) from one molecule of pyruvate?
A) lactate
B) glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate
C) oxaloacetate
D) citrate
E) acetyl CoA

acetyl CoA

Why is glycolysis considered to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?
A) It is found in prokaryotic cells but not in eukaryotic cells.
B) It relies on chemiosmosis which is a metabolic mechanism present only in the first cells-prokaryotic
cells.
C) It produces much less ATP than does oxidative phosphorylation.
D) It is found in the cytosol, does not involve oxygen, and is present in most organisms.
E) It requires the presence of membrane-enclosed cell organelles found only in eukaryotic cells.

It is found in the cytosol, does not involve oxygen, and is present in most organisms.

Which of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all life on Earth?
A) All organisms reproduce.
B) All organisms have undergone evolution.
C) All organisms use essentially the same genetic code.
D) All organisms require energy.
E) All organisms show heritable variation.

All organisms use essentially the same genetic code.

The theory of evolution is most accurately described as
A) an overarching explanation, supported by much evidence, for how populations change over time.
B) an idea about how acquired characteristics are passed on to subsequent generations. C) an educated guess about how species originate.
D) an opinion that some scientists hold about how living things change over time.
E) one possible explanation, among several scientific alternatives, about how species have come into
existence.

an overarching explanation, supported by much evidence, for how populations change over time.

The phylogeny of the SARS virus strains indicated that the disease originated in bats and then jumped to civets and humans.
A) True B) False

True

Most prokaryotes are generally harmful to humans.
A) True B) False

False

The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by substrate-level phosphorylation.
A) True B) False

True

Methyl is a functional group that acts as a base. A) True B) False

False

Enzymatic activity is affected by changes in temperature, but not by changes in pH.
A) True B) False

False

Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?
A) Respiration is the reversal of the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis.
B) Respiration is anabolic and photosynthesis is catabolic.
C) ATP molecules are produced in photosynthesis and used up in respiration.
D) Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it.
E) Photosynthesis occurs only in plants and respiration occurs only in animals.

Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it.

What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?
A) split water and release oxygen
B) synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide
C) use NADPH to release carbon dioxide D) use A TP to release carbon dioxide
E) transport RuBP out of the chloroplast

synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide

If photosynthesizing green algae are provided with CO2 synthesized with heavy oxygen (18O), later analysis will show that all but one of the following compounds produced by the algae contain the 18O label. That one compound is
A) PGAL.
B) O2.
C) RuBP .
D) glucose.
E) G3P.

O2.

Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light.

What did Engelmann conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue areas?
A) Bacteria are attracted to red and blue light and thus these wavelengths are more reactive
than other wavelengths.
B) Bacteria released excess carbon dioxide in these areas.
C) Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature caused by an
increase in photosynthesis.
D) Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature of the red and
blue light.
E) Bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released.

Bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released.

Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light.

An outcome of this experiment was to help determine
A) the relationship between wavelengths of light and the rate of aerobic respiration.
B) the relationship between wavelengths of light and the oxygen released during
photosynthesis.
C) the relationship between heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms. D) the relationship between the concentration of carbon dioxide and the rate of
photosynthesis.
E) the relationship between wavelengths of light and the amount of heat released.

the relationship between wavelengths of light and the oxygen released during
photosynthesis.

Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain found in plant cells?
A) cytoplasm
B) citric acid cycle
C) stroma of chloroplasts
D) matrix of mitochondria
E) thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts

thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts

Generation of proton gradients across membranes occurs during
A) respiration.
B) photosynthesis.
C) both photosynthesis and respiration.
D) photorespiration.
E) neither photosynthesis nor respiration.

both photosynthesis and respiration.

Why are C4 plants able to photosynthesize with no apparent photorespiration?
A) They are adapted to cold, wet climates.
B) They conserve water more efficiently. C) They exclude oxygen from their tissues.
D) They use PEP carboxylase to initially fix CO2.
E) They do not participate in the Calvin cycle.

They use PEP carboxylase to initially fix CO2.

Produces molecular oxygen (O2)
A) light reactions alone
B) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis
C) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle
D) the Calvin cycle alone
E) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

light reactions alone

Produces NADH
A) the Calvin cycle alone
B) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle
C) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle
D) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis
E) light reactions alone

neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

Requires ATP
A) light reactions alone
B) the Calvin cycle alone
C) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle
D) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis
E) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

the Calvin cycle alone

Why is the one gene, one enzyme hypothesis not considered absolutely true anymore?

more than one of the above answers is correct

Why does co-transcriptional translation (both these processes occurring simultaneoulsy on a gene) occur only in bacteria (prokaryotes)?

more than one of the above answers is correct

**In the accompanying figure, what process is going on in the direction marked "b"?

translation

**in the same figure, what would you call process "A" if it were to go backwards (rather than in the direction of the arrow)?

reverse transcription

telomerase inhibitors have been promoted as a wonder drug that can be used to treat diseases. What kind of cells would this inhibitor work on?

more than one of the above is correct

transcription initiation begins at the

promoter

the immediate source of energy for transcription comes from the breakdown of what molecule(s)?

none of the above

a mutation that results in a change in this sequence, AAUAAA, would result in what consequence in the cell?

destabilization of the mRNA (it will break down rapidly)

depleting all the snRNPs in a cell would block what process?

removal of introns from the pre-mRNA

When viruses infect a cell, they deploy a protein that clips the 7-methyl guanosine from the cellular mRNA and transfer this molecule to their own mRNA. What effect would this have on the cell?

this would prevent binding of the ribosome to the cellular mRNA

Exposure of DNA to UV radiation leads to what specific kind of damage?

thymine dimers

Why don't prokaryotes have an "end-replication" problem (i.e. why don't they have problems replicating the end of their chromosomes)?

prokaryotes have circular chromosomes (they have no ends)

In Frederick Griffith's experiment on streptococcus pneumoniae, what result indicated that bacteria could transfer traits into each other?

the appearance of smooth bacteria in mice injected with live rough bacteria mixed with heat killed smooth bacteria

the two strands of the double helix can separate easily because

they are held together by hyrdogen bonds between the bases

what is the rule of complementarity in DNA?

A pairs with T; G pairs with C

DNA replication becomes

at the origin of replication

Which of the following are unique to prokaryotes (not found in eukaryotes)>

a single origin of replication per chromosome

which of the following RNA types is not needed for protein synthesis?

miRNA

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