the 95 theses
written by Martin Luther on October 31, 1517. statements nailed to the church door-attacked way indulgences had been abused
the line of Demarcation
Pope Alexander's decision on ownership rights. Portugal was given Brazil while the rest of Latin America went to Spain.
battle of bosworth field
occurred in the War of the Roses. Richard III, brother of Edward IV, was ordered to protect Edward IV's children after Edward IV's death. One of his children was the heir to the throne. Richard murdered the children, seized the crown, and was killed by Henry Tudor at this battle.
This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
representative assembly in England
the french parliment/ composed of the representatives from the three estates of french society/ troubled with voting--1st and 2nd estates could outvote 3rd
edict of worms
declared Martin Luther an outlaw within the empire and his works were to be burned and luther himself captured and delivered to the emperor
hundred years war
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
age of exploration
Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.
war of the roses
struggle for the English throne (1455-1485) between the house of York (white rose) and the house of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII
Papal certifcates that excused a person from doing penance and shortening thier time in purgatory (Sold by the Roman Church-people bought them).
Kept by King William the Conqueror to record the count of all people and property (a census) so the king could collect taxes. Book was completed in 1086.
Devised long poems about war heros and would chant them to thier tribal chiefs for entertainment (early Saxons). Greatest Saxon poem is Beowulf.
11th century crusade of small kingdoms to take back Spain from the Moors.
Where Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses to a church door.
A running account of current English events that was started by King Alfred the Great (886). Continued to be written for hundreds of years.
Where Martin Luther hid (1521-1522) and translated the New Testament into German.
Joan of Arc
French peasant girl, "The Maid of Orleans," who led the French into battle agains the English in the Hundred Years War. She was exectued by the English.
The most important Indian civilization in South America. They lived in the Andes Mountains (1400).
The most powerful Native American empire at the begining of the Age of Exploration.
Swiss (1484-1531) who started the reformation in Zurich. Often preached the Bible.
(1509-1564) French reformer who developed his understanding of the Bible into an organized system of beliefs based on a few points of doctrine. Wrote the most influencial book of the Protestant Reformation.
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy(French). In 1066 he sailed to England, Battle of Hastings, conqured England and ruled from 1066-1087.
Alfred the Great
Assumed the English Throne in 871.
A scholar from the Netherlands (1466-1536).
Vasco de Balboa
Crossed the straights of Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean...
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Richard the First's mother...
From North Africa, crossed the Striaght of Gibraltor into Spain in 711.
Italian, lived in China for 20 years, returned to Europe and wrote a book describing his traveling though Asia (sparked Europe's interest in trading with the Orient).
Ponce de Leon
Made the first Spanish Landing on the.......1513.
Discovered St. Luce.... 1534-1535
Landed in South America in 1500, Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil
King of France elected in 987 and founding the Capetian dynasty (940-996)
Vasco de Gama
First European to reach the Middle East by sea.
Simon de Montfort
Took control of the government and sarted the first SOMETHING of parliment.
First modern explorer to reach the North American mainland.
3 year voyage around the world.
Conqured the Aztecs in 1520.
Jacques Lefevre d' Etaples
1400s-French scholar who translated the Bible into French.
King of England from 1100 to 1135
Priest that translated the New Testament from the orgininal Greek maunscripts into English. He wanted to bring the word of God to the common man of England. He was burned at the stake.
first king of portugal
Katharina von Bora
A former nun who married Martin Luther in 1525 and had 6 children.
Spanish National Hero (11th century). Fought against the Muslims and captured the city of Valencia.
An Anabaptist preacher from Holland who started the Mennonite Religion.
Canute the Dane
Viking in 1060 that became king of England. He ruled England and Denmark as a great empire and was popular with most Englishmen.
1. Alfred the Great (871-899)
2. Canute the Dane (994-1035)
3. Edwards the Confessor (...-1066)
4. Harold II (1066)
1. William I (1066-1087)
2. William II (1087-1100)
3. Henry I (1100-1135)
4. Stephen (1135-1154)
1. Henry II (1154-1189)
2. Richard I (1189-1199)
3. John (1199-1216)
4. Henry III (1216-1272)
5. Edward I (1272-1307)
6. Edward II (1307-1327)
7. Edward III (1327-1377)
8. Richard II (1377-1399)
House of York
1. Henry IV (1399-1413)
2. Henry V (1413-1422)
3. Richard III (1432-1485)
House of Tudor
1. Henry VII (1485-1509)