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adenoidectomy

excision of the adenoids.

adenotome

surgical instrument used to cut the adenoids.

bronchoplasty

surgical repair of a bronchus.

laryngectomy

excision of the larynx.

laryngoplasty

surgical repair of the larynx

laryngostomy

creation of an artificial opening into the larynx.

laryngotracheotomy

incision of the larynx and trachea

lobectomy

excision of a lobe (of the lung)

pleuropexy

surgical fixation of the pleura

pneumobronchotomy

incision of lung and bronchus

pneumonectomy

excision of a lung

rhinoplasty

surgical repair of the nose

septoplasty

surgical repair of the (nasal) septum.

septotomy

incision into the (nasal) septum

sinusotomy

incision of a sinus

thoracocentesis

surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity (also called thoracentesis)

thoracotomy

incision into the chest cavity

tonsillectomy

excision of the tonsils.

tracheoplasty

surgical repair of the trachea

tracheostomy

creation of an artificial opening into the trachea

tracheotomy

incision of the trachea

bronchoscope

instrument used for visual examination of the bronchi

bronchoscopy

visual examination of the bronchi

endoscope

instrument used for visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity). (Current trend is to use endoscopes for surgical procedures as well as for viewing.)

endoscopic

pertaining to visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity)(used to describe the practice of performing surgeries that use endoscopes.)

endoscopy

visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity)

laryngoscope

instrument used for visual examination of the larynx.

laryngoscopy

visual examination of the larynx.

thoracoscope

instrument used for visual examination of the thorax.

thoracoscopy

visual examination of the thorax

capnometer

instrument used to measure carbon dioxide (levels in expired gas)

oximeter

instrument used to measure oxygen (saturation in the blood)

spirometer

instrument used to measure breathing (or lung volumes)

spirometry

a measurement of breathing (or lung volumes)

polysomnography (PSG)

process of recording many (tests) during sleep (performed to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea) tests include: electrocardiography, electromyography, electroencephalography, air flow monitoring and oximetry

chest computed tomography scan (CT)

computerized images of the chest created in sections sliced from front to back. Performed to diagnose tumors abscesses, and pleural effusion. Computed tomography is used to visualize other body parts such as the abdomen and the brain.

chest radiograph (CXR)

a radiographic image of the chest performed to evaluate the and the heart (also called chest x-ray)

ventilation-perfusion scanning (VPS)

a nuclear medicine procedure performed to diagnose a pulmonary embolism and other conditions (also called a lung scan)

acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear

a test performed on sputum to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli, which cause tuberculosis.

arterial blood gases (ABGs)

a test performed on arterial blood to determine levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases present.

peak flow meter (PFM)

a portable instrument used to measure how fast air can be pushed out of the lung; used to help monitor asthma and adjust medication accordingly.

pulmonary function tests (PFTs)

a group of tests performed to measure breathing and used to determine respiratory function; when abnormal, they are useful in distinguishing COPD from asthma

pulse oximetry

a noninvasive method of measuring oxygen in the blood by using a device that attaches to the fingertip.

auscultation

the act of listening for sounds within the body through a stethoscope. Used for assessing and diagnosing conditions of the lungs, pleura, heart, and abdomen.

percussion

the act of tapping of a body surface with the fingers to determine the density of the part beneath by the sound obtained. A dull sound indicates the presence of fluid in a body space or cavity such as in the pleural space

purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test

a test performed on individuals who have recently been exposed to tuberculosis. PPD of the tuberculin bacillus is injected intradermally. Positive tests indicate previous exposure, not necessarily active tuberculosis (also called TB skin test)

stethoscope

an instrument used to hear internal body sounds; used for performing auscultation and blood pressure measurement.

acapnia

condition of absence (less than normal) of carbon dioxide (in the blood)

alveolar

pertaining to the alveolus

anoxia

condition of absence (deficiency) of oxygen

aphonia

condition of absence of voice

apnea

absence of breathing

bronchoalveolar

pertaining to the bronchi and alveoli

bronchospasm

spasmodic contraction in the bronchi

diaphragmatic

pertaining to the diaphragm (also called phrenic)

dysphonia

condition of difficult speaking (voice)

dyspnea

difficult breathing

endotracheal

pertaining to within the trachea

eupnea

normal breathing

hypercapnia

condition of excessive carbon dioxide (in the blood)

hyperpnea

excessive breathing

hypocapnia

condition of deficient carbon dioxide (in the blood)

hypopnea

deficient breathing

hypoxemia

condition of deficient oxygen in the blood

hypoxia

condition of deficient oxygen (to the tissues)

intrapleural

pertaining to within the pleura (space between the two pleural membranes)

laryngeal

pertaining to the larynx

laryngospasm

spasmodic contraction of the larynx.

mucoid

resembling mucus

mucous

pertaining to mucus

nasopharyngeal

pertaining to the nose and pharynx

orthopnea

able to breathe easier in a straight (upright)

phrenalgia

pain in the diaphragm (also called diaphragmalgia)

phrenospasm

spasm of the diaphragm

pulmonary

pertaining to the lungs

pulmonologist

a physician who studies and treats diseases of the lung

pulmonology

study of the lung (a branch of medicine dealing with disease of the lung)

rhinorrhea

discharge from the nose (as in a cold)

tachypnea

rapid breathing

thoracic

pertaining to the chest

airway

passageway by which air enters and leves the lungs as well as mechanical device used to keep the air passageway unobstructed

asphyxia

deprivation of oxygen for tissue use; suffocation

aspirate

to withdraw fluid or suction fluid

bronchoconstrictor

agent causing narrowing of the bronchi

bronchodilator

agent causing the bronchi to widen

cough

sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lungs.

hiccup

sudden catching of breath with a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm (also called hiccough an singultus)

hyperventilation

ventilation of the lungs beyond normal body needs

hypoventilation

ventilation of the lungs that does not fulfill the body's gas exchange needs.

mucopurulent

containing both mucus and pus.

mucus

slimy fluid secreted by the mucus membranes

nebulizer

device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment

nosocomial infection

an infection acquired during hospitalization

paroxysm

periodic, sudden attack

patent

open, the opposite of closed or comprised, thus allowing passage of air, as in patent trachea and bronchi can be applied to any tubular passageway in the body, as in a patent artery, allowing passage of the blood

sputum

mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea expelled through the mouth

ventilator

mechanical device used to assist with or substitute for breathing

ABGs

arterial blood gases

AFB

acid-fast bacilli

ARDS

acute respiratory distress syndrome

CF

cystic fibrosis

CO2

carbon dioxide

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CT

computed tomography

CXR

chest radiograph (chest x-ray)

flu

influenza

LLL

left lower lobe

LTB

laryngotracheobronchitis

LUL

left upper lobe

OSA

obstructive sleep apnea

PE

pulmonary embolism

PFM

peak flow meter

PFTs

pulmonary function tests

PSG

polysomnography

RLL

Right lower lobe

RML

right middle lobe

RUL

right upper lobe

SOB

shortness of breath

TB

tuberculosis

URI

upper respiratory infection

VPS

ventilation-perfusion scanning

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