Mside Bio Final

52 terms by tjm006

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Chondrichthyes

-cartilage fish (sharks, skates, rays, ratfish)
-First group to evolve jaws, modified gill supports; cartilaginous skeleton (except for jaws/teeth)

Ray-finned fishes

-Have bony rays to support fins; most diverse; bony skeleton

Coelocanths

-Primitive fish with jointed fins; group from which tetrapods evolved

Lungfishes

Have both lungs and gills; closest living relative of tetrapods

Amphibians

-(frogs/toads, salamanders, caecilians)
-First tetrapods (evolved from fish); first terrestrial vertebrates; undergo metamorphosis; reproduce in water in most; skin requires moist habitat

Reptiles

-(turtles, squamates (lizards and snakes), crocodilians, dinosaurs, birds)
-First tetrapod group to be free from water; have keratinized scales, amniotic egg, modified kidneys→uric acid

Mammals

-Have amniotic sac—supports embryo
-Have mammary glands and hair

Protherians (mammals)

lay eggs outside body

Marsupials (mammals)

internal amnion

Eutherians (placental mammals)

humans

Ecology

study of interactions between organisms and their environment

population

same species in given area at given time

community

different species... (all populations)

ecosystem

community + ABIOTIC factors = nonliving factors (soil, water, air, climate, etc)

biosphere

thin layer surrounding globe

Biotic factors

living

abiotic factors

non-living

Proximate cause

immediate physical cause

Ultimate cause

evolutionary cause (how the behavior relates to fitness/promotes fitness)

Habituation

ceasing to respond to a stimulus (hyphae); saves energy

Imprinting

-learning to become "YOUR" species (Chester the Molester); must occur within critical period

Conditional/ Associative learning

-Learning in response to an outside stimulus (positive/negative/neutral)

Classical conditioning

-pairing of a neutral stimulus with specific behavior (Pavlov's dogs receiving a steak at the sounds of a bell, causing them to salivate. Eventually, the sound of a bell alone makes the dogs salivate)

Operant conditioning

-modification of voluntary behavior using reward(+)/punishment(-)

Evolution

-change in genetics of a population over time

Sexual Reproduction

-egg and sperm meet form a zygote
-Pro= genetic diversity
-Cons= need a mate; wasted males

Asexual Reproduction

-No fusion of egg and sperm
- Pros= no mate needed, no wasted mates
- Cons= no genetic diversity

Scientific method

observation, question, hypothesis(ses), experiment (test), conclusion

Prokaryotes

-no nucleus, no organelle, single celled (bacteria); binary fission for reproduction, singular circular chromosome; found in every type of environment

Eukaryote

-multi-celled; mitosis for reproduction, membrane bound organelles including nucleus, multiple elongated chromosomes.

Autotroph

-gaining food via photosynthesis

Heterotroph

-feeding off of other organisms

hallmark characters of vertebrates

1) internal skeleton including vertebral column—endoskeleton
2) anterior skull—protects brain
3) coelomates—organs anchored in coelom
4) well-developed closed circulatory system with dorsal heart

chordates

dorsal nerve cord

chordates

post anal tail

chordates

pharyngeal gill slits

chordates

notochord (vertebral discs in spine)

chordates

endostyle

vertebrates

internal skeleton

vertebrates

anterior skull

vertebrates

coelomate

vertebrates

closed circ system with dorsal heart

cold desert

low growing shrubs, seed eating birds, -2-26 degrees C, 15-26 cm of precip/year

chaparral

low growing shrubs and trees with evergreen leaves, many small rodents and birds, winters are cold and wet and summers are warm and dry

thorn forest/tropical savanna

spiny shrubs, grazing mammals, reptiles and insects, 25-35 degrees C, little rain in winter

tropical deciduous forest

many trees, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and insects, 20-60 degrees C, total rain=about 160 cm

tropical evergreen forest

up to 500 species of trees per square km, mammals, birds, amphibians, anthropods, warm and rainy--about 20 degrees C all year, rainfall exceeds 250 cm

tundra

low growing plants, birds and insects (summer), -25-5 degrees C, low precip

temperate evergreen forest

coniferous trees, moose, hares, rodents, -25-15 degrees C, winters are mild and wet, summers are cool and dry

temperate deciduous forest

deciduous trees and shrubs, migrant birds, insects, amphibians, -10-25 degrees C, about 81 cm of rain/year

temperate grasslands

perennial grasses and forbs--corn and wheat, large grazing mammals, 0-25 degrees C, snow in winter, rain in summer

hot desert

taproots, waxy covered leaves, reptiles, rodents, insects, 25-38 degrees C

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