bill passed annually to fund an authorized program.
an act of Congress that establishes a discretionary government program or an entitlement, or that continues or changes such programs.
A policy document allocating burdens (taxes) and benefits (expenditure). Public budgets are the supreme example of Harold Lasswell's definition of politics as "who gets what, when, and how."
a bill setting limits on expenditures based on revenue projections, agreed to by both houses of Congress in April each year.
Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974
an act designed to reform the budgeting process by making Congress less dependent on the president's budget; established a fixed budget calendar and a budget committee in each house.
Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
research agency of Congress, responsible to it for providing analyses of budget proposals, revenue forecasts, and related information.
laws that allow agencies to spend at the previous year's level.
occurs when government spends more money than it receives in taxes in the fiscal year.
Delegation of Powers
The empowering of one to act for another. This is clearly necessary in order for the Chief executive to properly run/oversee government operations. This commonly occurs in circumstances where agencies are given broad powers to enforce.
A government in which one party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress
expenditures for which the total amount spent is not by congressional appropriation, but rather by rules of eligibility established by Congress.
money spent by the government in any one year.
all of the money borrowed by the government over the years that is still outstanding.
The inability of the government to move forward on the basis of divided government.
House Ways and Means Committee
responsible for originating all revenue bills.
the portion of money individuals are required to pay to the government from the money they earned.
the best predictor of this year's budget is last year's budget plus a little bit more.
Legislative Liaison Staff
The part of the White House staff that coordinates executive branch communications with the legislature (Congress). This office is critical to insuring that the President's legislative proposals are carried out.
A command, indicated by the electorate's votes for elected officials to carry out their platforms.
in 1965, this program was added to Social Security to provide hospital and physician coverage to the elderly.
revisions of program authorizations to make the final budget meet the limits of the budget resolution, usually occurring toward the end of the budgetary process.
money received by the government in any given year.
Senate Finance Committee
responsible for writing the tax code.
passed in 1913, permits Congress to levy an income tax.
Social Security Act
passed to provide a minimal level of sustenance to older Americans.
revenue losses due to special exemptions, exclusions, and deductions.
result from policies that make some group automatically eligible for benefits.