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population density

number of individuals per unit area

immigration

movement of individuals into an area p=occupied by an existing population

emigration

movement of individuals out of an area

exponential growth

growth pattern in whic the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate

logistic growth

growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth

carrying capacity

largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support

limiting factor

factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease

density-dependent limiting factor

limiting factor that depends on population size

predator-prey relationship

mechanism of population control in which a population is regulated by predation

density-independent relationship

limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of size

age-structure diagram

graph of the number of males and females within different age groups of a population

renewable resource

resource that can regenerate quickly and is replaceable

nonrenewable resource

resource that cannot be replenished by natural processes

sustainable development

using natural resources at a rate that does not deplete them

soil erosion

wearing away of surface soil by water and wind

desertification

in areas with dry climates, a process caused by a combination of poor farming practices, overgrazing, and drought that turns productive land into desert

deforestation

destruction of forests

acid rain

rain containing nitric and sulfuric acids

greenhouse effect

natural situation in which heat is retained in earths atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases

biodiversity

biological diversity, the sum total of the variety of organisms in the biosphere

endangered species

species whose population size is rapidly declining and will become extinct if the trend continues

biological magnification

increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher tropic levels in a food chain or web.

invasive species

plants and animals that have migrated to places where they are not native

conservation

wise management of natural resources including the preservation of wildlife and habitats

ozone layer

atmospheric layer in which ozone gas is relatively concentrated

global warming

increase in the average temperatures on earth

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