Final Exam 3

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Homologous structures, such as a bat wing and whale flipper,

have the same underlying structure due to inheritance from a common ancestor.

What is the repressor in the lac operon system?

a protein that blocks transcription when lactose is not present

Many commercial pesticides become less effective after 2-3 years because

pests with resistant genes will survive and reproduce.

Introns in genes are an example of

junk DNA

Birds with extravagant plumage may be able to pass their genes to the next generation better than
drab birds because they

are more likely to attract a mate.

Which process(es) occur in the nucleus?

DNA replication and transcription

Dolly, the cloned sheep, is the product of which technique?

reproductive cloning

The most important kind of selection acting on a well-adapted population in a relatively constant
environment is?

stabilizing.

Sexual displays and contests common in the Animal Kingdom (such as Bighorn Sheep bashing
their heads together) result in?

nonrandom mating.

What does the enzyme RNA polymemerase do?

synthesizes RNA

An example of adaptive radiation is

Galapagos finches.

Blue-footed boobies of the Galapagos will only mate after a very specific courtship display on the
part of the male. He high-steps to advertise his bright blue feet What isolating mechanism
discourages mating outside the species?

behavioral isolation

two populations of mountain dwelling salamanders are separated by an impassable valley. The
populations are

allopatric.

The units of both RNA and DNA are composed of

sugars, phosphates and bases.

the genetic code is redundant, which means that

most amino acids are coded for by more than one codon.

The biological species concept is based on

reproductive isolation.

What molecules are produced in translation?

proteins

Biotechnology can be defined as the use of living organisms to create products or to facilitate
process. Restriction enzymes are one kind of tools required by this technology. What roles do
restriction enzymes play?

They cut DNA at specific sites.

Which of these definitions of species most closely fits the biological species concept?

Members of the same species can mate and produce fertile offspring.

what is a codon?

a base sequence of mRNA that codes for a specific amino acid

A population of deer was threatened with overpopulation until cheetahs were imported. After a
couple of years, there were fewer deer but the average running speed of the deer had increased.
This is an example of

natural selection.

If a DNA segment has the sequence GCTAA, what RNA sequence will be made from it?

CGAUU

the half life of a radioactive isotope is 10,000 years. This isotope and its breakdown product do not
normally occur together when molten rock cools and becomes solid. If you have a volcanic rock
sample containing 0.25 grams of the radioactive isotope and 0.75 grams of its breakdown product,
when did this rock likely solidify? 25) A

20,000 years ago

What is one of the ways that RNA is different from DNA?

RNA is found in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus.

Which of these gases was absent in the early earth atmosphere at the time life first appeared?

oxygen

Which of the following is the best description of a gene?

a segment of DNA that is transcribed into a mRNA, a tRNA or an rRNA

Which choice is an example of "recombinant DNA"?

a human protein produced by a bacterial cell

Some RNA molecules have been discovered that can

act as enzymes.

Two nearby populations in which there is some movement of individuals between the populations are an example of

gene flow

All of the following are frequently factors in sexual selection EXCEPT

founder effect

disruptive selection operates whenever

the extremes in a distribution of phenotypes are more fit than the average

Shrews have been documented to travel across frozen lakes and establish populations on previously uninhabited islands. This is an example of

founder effect.

The theory of natural selection states that

the best adapted individuals survive and reproduce contributing the most genes to the next generation.

What determines which traits will be passed on to the next generation in the greatest frequency?

how well that trait contributes to successful reproduction in a given environment

Which of these types of Galapagos species most influenced Darwin to develop the theory of species change by natural selection?

small birds

Which of the following possibilities is the best indicator of an organism's evolutionary fitness?

the number of offspring it produces over its lifetime that survive to breed

organisms from which kingdom or domain were the first photosynthesizers?

Archaea

imagine a population of monkeys in South America whose habitat has been reduced to the point
where only 25 monkeys survive. This is an example of

population bottleneck

f a codon has the sequence CAG, what tRNA anticodon will bind to it?

GUC

How many different types of amino acids are found in proteins?

20

a transgenic animal

contains a foreign gene.

Which of the following males in a given population would be considered the most fit in an evolutionary sense? One that produced

two offspring, both of which survived and produced offspring of their own.

Which group of vertebrates were the first to evolve a waterproof egg allowing the group to move away from bodies of water to reproduce?

reptiles

In the fossil record, species suddenly appear, remain more or less unchanged for varying periods of geologic time, and then disappear from the record. This trend best supports the theory of

punctuated equilibrium.

The common genetic defects of certain do breeds are due to

genetic drift

The Great Dane and Chiliuahua are both domestic dogs, the same species. However, mating
between them is limited by

mechanical incompatibility.

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