Biology Ch. 6 - How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy

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Which of the following statements regarding muscle fibers is false?

Training usually converts one type of muscle fiber into another.

The term anaerobic means

without O2 (oxygen).

Which of the following statements regarding fast-twitch muscles is false?

Fast-twitch muscles produce more ATP per glucose that slow-twitch muscles

Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?

Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria

The processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy conversions, some energy is

lost in the from of heat.

Respiration _____, and cellular respiration _____.

is gas exchange . . . produces ATP

Which of the following are products of cellular respiration?

Energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide

Which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false?

Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step

The overall equation for cellular respiration of glucose is

C6H12O6+6 O2 -> 6 CO2+6 H2O+energy

Humans use the calories they obtain from _____ as their source of energy.

food

A kilocalorie is defined as

the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1oC.

The label on the box of breakfast cereal lists one serving as containing 200 calories per serving. How many calories are actually in one serving?

200,000

During redox reactions,

electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance.

Oxidation is the _____, and reduction is the _____.

loss of electrons . . . gain of electrons

In biological systems, an important enzyme involved in the regulation of redox reactions is

dehydrogenase.

During cellular respiration, electrons move through a series of election carrier molecules. Which of the following statements about this process is true?

Molecular oxygen is reduced when it accepts electrons and forms water

Which of the following options lists the stages in cellular respiration in the correct order?

glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation

A drug is tested in the laboratory and is found to create holes in both mitochondrial membranes. Scientists suspect that the drug will be harmful to human cells because it will inhibit

the citric acid cycle and oxidative phophorylation.

Which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism?

glycolysis

As a result of glycolysis there is a net gain of ___ ATPs.

2

How many molecules of NADH are produced during glycolysis?

2

Which of the following is a result of glycolysis?

conversion of glucose to two three-carbon compounds

The mitochondrial cristae are an adaption that

increases the space for more copies of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase complexes.

By-products of cellular respiration include

carbon dioxide and water.

In the electron transport chain, the final election acceptor is

an oxygen atom.

Which of the following processes produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose oxidized?

aerobic respiration

Muscle soreness associated with strenuous exercise is at least partly due to

the presence of lactate produced during fermentation in muscle cells.

A child is born with a rare disease in which mitochondria are missing from skeletal muscle cells. However, the muscles still function. Physicians find that

the muscles contain large amounts of lactate following even mild physical exercise.

Some friends are trying to make win in their basement. They've added yeast to a sweet grape juice mixture and have allowed the yeast to grow. After several days they find that sugar levels in the grape juice have dropped, but there's no alcohol in the mixture. The most likely explanation is that

the mixture needs less oxygen, because yeast only produce alcohol in the absence of oxygen.

In yeast cells,

alcohol is produced after glycolysis.

If you consume 1g of each of the following, which will yield the most ATP?

fat

The conversion of CO2 and H2O into organic compounds using energy from light is called

photosynthesis.

(See chart page 6) Which step of the Krebs cycle requires both NAD+ and ADP as reactants?

step 3

(See paragraph page 7) The method of weight loss described for Fat Away shows that the drug is acting as a metabolic

uncoupler.

Fat Away prevents ATP from being made by

blocking access of H+ to ATP synthetase.

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