Exam 2

Created by jcristello 

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Research on the nature of parent-adolescent relationships reveals that:

most adolescents appear to maintain positive, supportive, and mutually respective relationships with parents

Mark is a teenager who generally respects his parents. On which of the following issues, however, is Mark most likely to side with his friends and against his parents?

on how to wear his hair

According to Smetana, adolescents often judge keeping one's room clean and style of dress as ________, whereas parents tend to judge these issues as __________.

personal; conventional

Max tells his friends that his mother is a "real marshmellow" who does whatever he wants and who never enforces the rules she tries to set. If Max's statement is true, his mother is best characterized as :

indulgent

Which of the following statements is most true of minority families and parenting styles?

because ethnic minorities are more likely to live in dangerous areas, authoritarian parenting may actually be beneficial for these adolescents

Over the course of adolescence, relationships among siblings become more egalitarian but _________ distant and __________ emotionally intense

more; less

What factors would explain the fact that Dorothy and Rose, sisters who are only 1 year apart in age, have different memories of their family life as they were growing up?

nonshared environment

Close to ____ of children in the United States grow up either in abject poverty or in low-income families

40%

Which of the following is NOT a finding of social scientists regarding the effects of divorce on adolescents?

the adverse consequences of divorce for adolescents are directly linked to living in a single-parent household

Adolescents from divorced families frequently display all of the following negative effects, EXCEPT

social rejection as a result of stigma

Which of the following statements about stepfamilies is FALSE

younger adolescents have a harder time adjusting to stepfamilies than older adolescents

When siblings are treated differently by parents, research shows that they are likely to:

get along better because they feel unique

The text states that _______ is/are the most critical influence on adolescents' adjustment.

the quality of their relationships at home

In comparison with teenagers in previous times, teenagers in contemporary societies spend ______ time with their peers ______ with their parents

more; than

All of the following contributed to the rise of age segregation in contemporary society, EXCEPT

decrease in family values

A reason stated in the text to explain why today's youth do not place the same value on education as their parents is that American adolescents:

have become alienated from and unfamiliar with the values of adults

Research studying adolescent friendship networks has found all of the following, EXCEPT

more than half of the adolescents in any given school are members of cliques

All of the following changes typically occur during adolescence, EXCEPT

larger groups are replaced by smaller cliques

Eleanor Maccoby states all of the following reasons that adolescents separate themselves into same-sex cliques, EXCEPT

parents' fears that cross-sex cliques will lead to early sexual activity

The chief determinant of popularity in high school is

social competence

Which of the following is a common finding of recent cyberbullying studies?

adolescents who engage in tranditional bullying often also engage in cyberbullying

Adolescents who use aggression deliberately, known as _______, are much more popular than adolescents who use aggression without planning to, known as _______

instrumental aggression; reactive aggression

Changes in the structure of secondary schools have been linked to broader societal revolutions. All of the following factors have contributed to these changes, EXCEPT

intellectualization

During the 1920's, the ________ was designed to meet the needs of a diverse and growing population of young people.

comprehensive high school

Experts are likely to express all of the following reasons for the failure of school reform, EXCEPT

the explosion of job opportunities in inner-city communities have left many students leaving school to pursue careers

Which of the following statements about classroom environment is true?

Moderate, rather than strict, control in the classroom promotes positive student behavior.

Which has a greater effect on students' scholastic achievement: school size or class size?

school size

Debbie is moving from elementary school into middle school. We would expect her to experience declines in all of the following EXCEPT her:

standardized test scores

Jacquelynne Eccles argues that the difficulty adolescents experience in the transition to junior high school is a result of the:

teachers' beliefs about junior high students

Which of the following statements about tracking is FALSE?

teaching quality is more or less the same in different tracks

According to the text, ______ do bettter in math during elementary school and ______ are more likely to be enrolled in advanced math classes in high school

girls; boys

Under current federal law, children with learning disabilities must be:

mainstreamed whenever possible

According to the textbook, why do private school students academically outperform students at public schools?

because of the characteristics of the students who attend private schools

All of the following are factors associated with higher performance of students in Catholic schools relative to other schools, EXCEPT

more effective use of academic tracking

Research has shown that teachers tend to favor high-achieving students by providing extra cues for answers and more positive nonverbal behaviors than for lower-achieving students. Such evidence provides support for the notion that teachers' expectations may contribute to:

the self-fulfilling prophecy

What is the paradox of dropping out of school?

students who drop out are typically the ones who are most harmed by doing so..

American high school students spend fewer than ____ hours per week on homework, while Japanese high school students average closer to ____

5; 5 hours per day

Adolescents are least likely to seek out ____ webt sites on the internet

pornography

Which of the following in NOT a common message that the media conveys about sex?

unprotected sex can have serious consequences

One tremendous problem in interpreting studies of media use and adolescent development is that:

it is extremely difficult to disentangle cause and effect

Which of the following is true of most adolescents' jobs?

adolescents are rarely required to use skills taught in school

Overall, the greatest number of working high school students are employed in:

restaurants and retail establishments

In contrast to adolescents in the United States, adolescents in Europe:

are more likely to drop out of school early to take on a full-time job

Research on violent video games has shown

in contract to 10 years ago, girls now play violent video games as frequently as boys do

All of the following have been found to be benefits of playing sports as an adolescent, EXCEPT

starting training while young helps protect adolescents from injuries later

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