AP U.S. History Ch. 13-15 Semester Test Review Key

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Manifest Destiny

The idea of expanding from sea to sea.

Appomattox Court House

Site where confederate army, under Robert E. Lee, surrendered to Union army, under Ulysses Grant.

Ulysses Grant

an american general and the eighteenth president of the united states (1869-1877). he achieved international fame as the leading union general in the american civil war.

Know-Nothings

the american party; anti-immigrant and anti-catholic

David Farragut

became the first u. s. navy admiral and was responsible for the successful blockade of the south during the civil war

John Brown

an abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in harpers ferry after capturing an armory

Jefferson Davis

an american statesman and politician who served as president of the confederate states of america for its entire history from 1861 to 1865

Robert E. Lee

a general for the confederates, fought many battles. one of his main plans towards the end of the civil war was to wait for a new president to come into office to make peace with. fought peninsular campaign, 2nd battle of bull run, antietam, fredericksburg, chancellorsville (with jackson), and gettysburg.

Roger Taney

chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 dred scott case that declared the missouri compromise unconstitutional

Abe Lincon

union pres. belived democracy depends on saving union.

Ostend Manifesto

a document drawn up in 1854 that instructed the buying of cuba from spain, then suggested the taking of cuba by force it caused outrage among northerners who felt it was a southern attempt to extend slavery as states in cuba would be southern states.

Hinton Rowan Helper

a southern critic of slavery during the 1850s who wrote a book entitled the impending crisis of the south the book put forth the notion that slavery hurt the economic prospects of non-slaveholders, and was an impediment to the growth of the entire region of the south.

Merrimac

an iron-clad vessel built by the confederate forces in the hope of breaking the blockade imposed by the north

Gettysburg

the most violent battle of the american civil war and is frequently cited as the war's turning point, fought from july 1 - july 3, 1863.

Thomas Jackson

confederate commander who helped the south win bull run. nicknamed the "stonewall" and soldiers under his command were called "foot calvary"

Stephan Douglas

illinois senator who introduced the kansas-nebraska act, which allowed new territories to choose their own position on slavery; debated abraham lincoln on slavery issues in 1858

William Sherman

union general who destroyed south during "march to the sea" from atlanta to savannah, example of total war

Vicksburg

grant's best fought campaign, this siege ended in the seizure of the mississippi river by the union

Harriet Tubman

united states abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in maryland and became a famous conductor on the underground railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the north (1820-1913)

Harriet Beecher Stowe

wrote uncle tom's cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. the book persuaded more people, particularly northerners, to become anti-slavery.

14th Amendment

Citizenship

Lincon Reconstruction Plan

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Andrew Johnson reconstruction plan & impeachment

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Military Reconstruction Act

it divided the south into five military districts that were commanded by union generals. it was passed in 1867. it ripped the power away from the president to be commander in chief and set up a system of martial law

Freedmen's Bureao

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Black Codes

southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves

15th Amendment

citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude

Carpetbaggers

northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction

Ku Klux Klan

founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: catholics, jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-american

Radical Reconstruction and Leaders

...

Tenure of Office Act 1

1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet

Dread Scott ruling

slave who sued his master for freedom after living in free territory for 5 years. congress ruled that 1: slaves could not sue in court. 2: slaves could not gain freedom simply by living in a free state. 3: missouri comprimise was ruled unconstitional and all states were open to slavery.

Fugitive Slave Law

enacted by congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. the north was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the south no end. the 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.

Fort Sumter

federal fort in the harbor of charleston, south carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the civil war

Compromise of 1850

includes california admitted as a free state, the fugitive slave act, made popular sovereignty in most other states from mexican- american war

Battle of Antietam

civil war battle in which the north suceedeed in halting lee's confederate forces in maryland. was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties

Northern Military Strategy

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Southern Strengths/Northern Strengths

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Battle of Bull Run

july 21, 1861. va. (outside of d.c.) people watched battle. thomas "stonewall" jackson: confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." union retreated. confederate victory. showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and bloody

George McClellan

he was a union general that was in charge during the beginning of the war. he defeated lee, at antietam, securing a much needed union victory.

Clara Barton Dorothea Dix

nurses in the union army. established nursing as a sphere of employment for women. p.479

Sharecropping System

this provided the necessities for black farmers. storekeepers granted credit until the farm was harvested. to protect the creditor, the storekeeper took a mortgage, or lien, on the tenant's share of the crop. at the end of the season the poor people would have to pay a "rent" in crops and most of the time the person would end up in a serious debt that they cannot get out of. the system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage of. the results, for blacks, was not unlike slavery.

Jefferson Davis

an american statesman and politician who served as president of the confederate states of america for its entire history from 1861 to 1865

Richmond

served as the capital of the confederate states of america during the vast majority of the american civil war. it was the target of numerous attempts by the united states army to seize possession of the capital, finally falling to the federals in april 1865. not only was it the seat of political power for the confederacy, it served as an important source of munitions, armament, weapons, supplies, and manpower for the confederate states army.

Lincon-Douglas Debates

in 1858. happened during illinois senatorial race. douglas was the incumbent. lincon challenged douglas. there were 7 debates. lincon did well, but douglas ende up beibng the one elected. the debates put lincon on the national stage.

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