Anatomy Chapter 6 Study Guide

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movement

Functions of the skeletal system include all of the following, except

long

The humerus is an example of a(n) _______ bone.

short

The ankle bones are examples of ______ bones.

flat

The sternum is an example of a(n) _______ bone.

irregular

The vertebrae are examples of _______ bones.

osteocytes

Mature bone cells are called

osteoblasts

Cells that synthesize the organic components of the bone matrix are called

osteoclasts

Large, multinucleated cells that can dissolve the bony matrix are called

the bony matrix is dissolved to release the stored minerals

In the process of osteolysis

calcium carbonate

Bone contains all of the following, except

matrices

The narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are called

blood vessels

The central canal of an osteon contains

trabeculae

The tiny plates of bone material found in spongy bone are called

compact

The type of bone that is adapted to withstand stresses that arrive from a limited range of directions is _____ bone.

marrow

The medullary cavity of bones contains

diaphysis

The shaft of a long bone is called the

endosteum

The lining of the marrow cavity is called the

deposition of calcium salts within a tissue

Calcification refers to the

4, 2, 1, 3

The following are major steps in the process of intramembranous ossification:

1. Clusters of osteoblasts form osteoid that becomes mineralized.
2. Osteoblasts cluster together to form an ossification center.
3. Small struts of bone called spicules radiate out from the ossification centers to join with neighboring spicules.
4. Osteoblasts differentiate within a connective tissue at the site of arterioles.

scapulae

Which of the following is NOT formed by intramembranous ossification?

a cartilage model

Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of

3, 1, 5, 4, 2

The following are major steps in the process of endochondral ossification:

1. Blood vessels invade the perichondrium.
2. Osteoclasts create a marrow cavity.
3. Chondrocytes enlarge and calcify.
4. Osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage with spongy bone.
5. The perichondrium is converted into a periosteum and the inner layer produces bone.

in the center of the epiphyses

Secondary ossification centers occur

accelerates rapidly

When production of sex hormones increase, bone growth

calcium

The most abundant mineral in the human body is

calcitonin

Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone

is released in larger concentrations earlier in life

Osteoclast-activating factor does all of the following, except that it

decrease the level of calcium ion in the blood

The hormone calcitonin functions to

stimulates osteoblast activity

Parathyroid hormone functions in all of the following ways, except it

giantism

Excess growth hormone prior to puberty would result in

vitamin E

Factors that are necessary for proper bone formation include all of the following, except

absorption and transport of calcium and phosphate ions

Vitamin D is necessary for

result in thin and brittle bones

A lack of exercise would

the minerals in the bone produce a weak electrical field that attracts osteoblasts

When stress is applied to a bone,

osteoporosis

A condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function is

A

The following are steps in the process of bone repair

closed

_______ fractures are completely internal; they do not break through the skin.

greenstick

A fracture where the shaft of one bone is broken and the adjacent bone is bent is best described as a ______ fracture.

sesamoid

Bones that develop within tendons are called ______ bones.

sutural

Small, flat, oddly shaped bones found between some of the large flat bones of the skull are called _____ bones.

trochanter

A large rough projection of a bone (found only on the femur) is termed a

tuberosity

A small round projection of a bone is termed a

condyle

The smooth, rounded or oval articular process of a bone is termed a

fossa

A deep depression on a bone is termed a

canaliculus

A canal leading through the matrix of a bone is termed a

osteons

The basic functional units of mature compact bone are called

calcification

The deposition of calcium slats in tissues other than bone is referred to as

bowed legs

A child with rickets would have

sesamoid

________ bones develop inside the tendons and are most commonly located near joints at the knees, the hands, and the feet.

sesamoid

The patella is an example of a(n) ______ bone.

surface features

If a human femur is found lying in a field, a pathologist can determine the age, sex, and general appearance of the individual as a result of studying which part of the bone?

spongy bone

The innermost part of compact bone is known as the

both A and C

Which of the following is a characteristic of bone?

calcium phosphate

________ accounts for almost two-thirds of the weight of bone.

protein crystal

The ________ interactions allow bones to be strong, somewhat flexible, and highly resistant to shattering.

osteocytes

The most abundant cell types found in the bone are

osteoprogenitor

_______ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum.

parallel

In relationship to the diaphysis of a long bone, the osteons are

10 to 15

The femur can withstand _______ times the body weight without breaking.

red

_________ marrow is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone.

long

_________ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and makes it easier for muscles to move the bones.

mesenchymal

Intramembranous ossification begins with the ________ cells.

step 4, growth and marrow cavity creation

In which step of endochondral ossification does remodeling of the bone occur?

thyroid gland

What is the primary source of calcitriol in the body?

calcium

The most abundant mineral in the body is

39

Bone is composed of ________ percent calcium.

hematoma

While on a school skiing trip in Colorado, Heidi falls and breaks her femur. What would you expect to see as part of her nursing assessment several hours after the fall?

osteocytes

The lacunae of bone contain

the bones would be more flexible

How would increasing the proportion of organic molecules to inorganic components in the bony matrix affect the physical characteristics of bone?

are lined up in the same direction

In compact bone, the osteons

are organized along stress lines

The trabeculae of spongy bone

become demineralized

If the rate of ostelysis exceeds osteogenesis, bones will

bones grow wider

During appositional growth

grow longer

When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones

elevated levels of sex hormones

Premature closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by

a portion of the protein and mineral content is replaced each year

In normal adult bones,

osteoclast activity when calcitonin is absent

Which is greater? (Osteoclast activity)

blood calcium levels when parathyroid hormone is increased

Which is greater? (Blood calcium levels)

causes a gradual reduction in bone mass

The condition known as osteopenia

bursitis

Degenerative changes in a joint can be the result of all of the following, except

decreased muscle response

Bill develops a benign tumor of the parathyroid glands, which causes the level of parathyroid hormone in his blood to be higher than normal. Which of the following would you expect to occur as a result of this condition?

estrogen

Marry is 50 years old. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals that portions of her skeleton show greater than normal demineralization. After reviewing the test results, her physician suggests hormone therapy. What hormone will she prescribe for her patient?

long bones have reached their adult length

When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone

osteomalacia

Hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone would produce changes in the bone similar to those associated with

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