was a Polish theatre director and innovator of experimental theater, the "theatre laboratory" and "poor theatre" concepts
was a French playwright and actor who is considered one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature.
-23 full length plays
-Pulitzer 4 prizes
-Felt stories are episodic in nature
-Creates learning pieces
-Believes audiences should be alienated from story (ex: Mother Courage and her Children)
-writes in musical dialogue
-"Mamet speak"（He often uses italics斜体字 and quotation marks to highlight particular words and to draw attention to his characters' frequent manipulation and deceitful use of language.）他独特的写作手法
-Glengarry Glen Ross-"the greatest play of the 1980s"
-Speed-the Plow attcks Hollywood
Aristrocratic Comedies: Tartuffe by Moliere
-Domestic Comedies: The Veaux Strategem
-Middle class existence
-Rebellion against social mores (laws or rules)
-Lives of ordinary people put on stage and examined
-"Holding up the mirror"
-it is the opposite way of naturalism, writer presents real natural things, but they want you to have a view on it.
Epic Theatre 叙事剧
-Must alienate the audience 脱离
-Must never adhere to realism
-Must always remind the audience it's a theatrical piece 戏剧性的
-Must always instigate煽动，鼓动a social change
-Founded in 1974, Chicago
-Gary Sinse, Joan Allen, William H Macy, John Malkovich, Sam Shepard, Laurie Metcalf.
-August Osage County
-America does not have a National Theater but Steppenwolf comes close.
-wrote great political humor
-attacked tragic writers of the time
A Doll House
-Written in 1879
-Examines middle class family crisis
-No clear-cut good VS evil
-Strong female protagonist.
-a 1953 play by Arthur Miller (1915-2005). It is a dramatization of the Salem witch trials that took place in Province of Massachusetts Bay during 1692 and 1693.
Death of a Salesman
-Play written by Arthur Miller. The play attempts to raise a counterexample to Aristotle's characterization of tragedy as the downfall of a great man.
Waiting for Godot
-is an absurdist play by Samuel Beckett, in which two characters, Vladimir and Estragon, wait for someone named Godot
family entertainment, talent show- comedies, actors etc.
adult entertainment-tell dirty jokes in show
The Bald Soprano
-Theater of the absurd
-First play written by Eugene Ionesco
-Interpreted in many languages
The Caucasian Chalk Circle
- is a play by the German modernist playwright Bertolt Brecht. An example of Brecht's epic theatre, the play is a parable about a peasant girl who steals a baby but becomes a better mother than its natural parents.
Mother Courage & Her Children
Bertolt Brecht-drama-Epic Theatre
The Vagina Monologues ** 的独白
Feminism and Gay Theater
- is an episodic play written by Eve Ensler which ran at the off-Broadway Westside Theatre after a limited run at HERE Arts Center in 1996.
-"It was a good rape" monologue
The Normal Heart
is a semi-autobiographical play by Larry Kramer. It focuses on the rise of the HIV-AIDS crisis in New York City between 1981 and 1984.
Speed The Plow
-is a play by David Mamet which is a satirical dissection解剖 of the American movie business, a theme Mamet would revisit in his later films Wag the Dog (1997) and State and Main (2000)
Glengarry Glen Ross
-"Greatest play of the 1980s"
-4 desperate real estate agents who are prepared to engage in illegal acts
-Lies, bribery, burglary, sells undesirable land to unwitting perspective buyers.
August: Osage County
-is a darkly comedic play by Tracy Letts.
-Steppenwolf Theatre Company
The House of Blue Leaves
-American playwright John Guare
-Set in Sunnyside, Queens in 1965, on the day Pope Paul VI visited New York City, the black comedy features nuns, a political bombing, a GI headed for Vietnam, a zookeeper who dreams of making it big in Hollywood as a songwriter, and his wife Bananas, a schizophrenic destined for the institution that provides the play's title.
is the text used in an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio and cantata, musical, and ballet. The term "libretto" is also sometimes used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as mass, requiem, and sacred cantata.
Gilbert & Sullivan
Operetta writers: boys want girls, can't have girls, gets her because they end up being in the same social class after all because he was adopted. (Ex: Pirates of Penzance)
George M. Cohan
-patriotic 爱国的, Renaissance man of theater (Yankee Doodle Boy, Grand old Flag)
Gold Bless America, White Christmas
-Tin Pan Alley: greeting ground for composers( buildings with pianos in each room)
-introduces Ragtime: dance music in red light districts in St.Louis and New Orleans
-Annie, get your gun
-Anything you can do, I can do better
-known for dirty, suggestive lyrics
-"Kiss Me Kate" subplot: 2 gangsters want money from debt
George and Ira Gershwin
-classical, then musical theater, then classical again
-died at age 36.
-George is the more important of the two brothers
-Known for optimisim and joy: people are very happy now
Rogers and Hart
-known for songs about love
-"I wish I were in love again" (Babes in Arms)
Babes in Arms
Rogers and Hart
- about teen-age boy who puts on a show with friends to avoid being sent to a work farm
-show about Depression: face your troubles
-Brother can you spare me a dime
-Rodgers and Hammerstein
-first of great book musicals
- Rodgers and Hammerstein
-won Pulitzer Prize
-a common, normal girl is racist, shocks audience and world
My Fair Lady
-Lerner and Loewe: writes handful of musicals, give us "the perfect musical"
-Jerry Herman: known for moment in all shows where men sing to girl walking down the stairs
Guys and Dolls
-several revivals 重演，复兴
-lyrics by Frank Loesser: Tony Award for Best Musical
starts in Hollywood-movie musicals
" How to Succeed in Broadway without trying"
West Side Story
-Jerome Robbins: American producer, director, and choreographer
Fiddler on the Roof
-"If I were a Rich Man"
- Jerome Robbins: American producer, director, and choreographer
-African American Wizard of Oz
-"Ease on Down the Road"
-puts Broadway musicals on film
-Leading musical producer
-Wizard of Oz
-1st Rock Play
-against Vietnam War( Peace, Love, Drugs)
-music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim
-Unlike most book musicals, Company is concept musical composed of short vignettes in no particular order
-Nostalgia Musical 怀旧的(revival)
-choreographer: sexual and cynical
-brought technological/techno musicals
Andrew L. Webber
-intelligent, sophisticated audiences
-Phantom of the Opera
-Jesus Christ Super Star
-Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat
-music and lyrics for company
-known for brilliant lyrics
-wrote Bachelor and Sweet Todd
-2000's switched from successful Musicals to new Movies , to Successful Movies to New Musicals
British producer of Les Miserables, Phantom, Mary Poppins and Cats
-produced by Cameron Macintosh
-prisoners of hard labor sing about starving and suffering