Lesson 4 Word List

177 terms by lovkel 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Chapters 8 & 23

absence seizure

a small seizure in which there is a sudden temporary loss of consciousness, lasting only a few seconds

affect

observable evidence of a person's feelings or emotions

agnosia

loss of mental ability to understand sensory stimuli even though the sensory organs themselves are functioning properly

agraphia

the inability to convert one's thoughts into writing

alexia

the inability to understand written words

Alzheimer's Disease

a progressive and debilitating beginning with memory loss and progresses to complete loss of mental, emotional, an physical functioning

amnesia

loss of memory caused by severe emotional trauma, brain injury, substance abuse, or reaction to medications or toxins

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (a.k.a. Lou Gehrig Disease)

a severe weakening and wasting of the involved muscle groups caused by decreased nerve innervation to the muscle groups

aneurysm

a localized dilatation in the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation of the artery

anxiety disorder

a disorder characterized by chronic worry

aphasia

the inability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs because of an injury to or disease in certain areas of the brain

apraxia

the inability to perform coordinated movements or use objects properly

astrocytoma

a tumor of the b rain or spinal cord composed of astrocytes

ataxia

without muscular coordination

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

a condition of persistent inattention and hyperactivity, impulsivity, or both

aura

the sensation an individual experiences prior to the onset of a migraine headache or an epileptic seizure

Babinski's reflex

is tested by stroking the sole of the foot beginning at midheel and moving upward an lateral to the toes

Bell's palsy

temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face following trauma to the face, an unknown infection, or a tumor pressing on the facial nerve

bipolar disorder aka manic depressive

a psychological disorder characterized by episodes of mania, depression, alternating between the two, or a mixture of the two moods simultaneously

bradykinesia

abnormally slow movement

brain abscess

an accumulation of pus located anywhere in the brain tissue due to an infectious process

brain scan

a nuclear counter scanning of cranial contents two hours after an intravenous injection of radioisotopes

carpal tunnel syndrome

pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel due to inflammation or swelling of the tendons

causalgia

a sensation of an acute burning pain along the path of a peripheral nerve due to an injury to peripheral nerve fibers

cephalalgia

pain in the head; headache

cerebral angiography

visualization of the cerebral vascular system via x-ray after the injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel

cerebral concussion

a brief interruption of brain function, usually with loss of consciousness lasting a few seconds

cerebral contusion

small scattered venous hemorrhages in the brain

cerebral palsy

a collective term used to describe congenital brain damage that is permanent but not progressive

cerebrospinal fluid analysis

cerebrospinal fluid that is obtained from a lumbar puncture is analyzed for the presence of bacteria, blood, or malignant cells as well as the amount of protein and glucose present

cerebrovascular accident (a.k.a. stroke)

death of a specific portion of brain tissue, resulting from a decrease in blood flow to that area of the brain

Cheyne-stokes respirations

an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by periods of apnea followed by deep, rapid breathing

chordotomy

a neurosurgical procedure for pain control accomplished through a laminectomy in which there is surgical interference of pathways within the spinal cord that control pain

cisternal puncture

the insertion of a short, beveled spinal needle into the cisterna magna to drain CSF or to obtain a CSF specimen

cluster headache

a headache occurring typically 2 or 3 hours after falling asleep

coma

a deep sleep in which the individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to external stimuli

comatose

pertains to being in a coma

contracture

an abnormal, usually permanent bending of a joint into a fixed position

craniotomy

a surgical incision into the cranium or skull

CT scan of the brain

the analysis of a three dimensional view of brain tissue obtained as x-ray beams pass through successive horizontal layers of the brain

degenerative disk

deterioration of the intervertebral disk, due to constant motion and wearing of the disk

delirium

a state of frenzied excitement

dementia

a progressive, organic mental disorder characterized by chronic personality disintegration, confusion, disorientation, stupor, deterioration of intellectual capacity and function, and impairment of control of memory, judgment, and impulses

depression

a mood disturbance characterized by exaggerated feelings of sadness, discouragement, and hopelessness that are inappropriate and out of proportion with reality

diplopia

double vision

dissociative identity disorder

a disorder in which there is apresence of two or more distinct personalities within one individual

dyslexia

a condition characterized by an impairment of the ability to read

dysphasia

difficult speech

echoencephalography

ultrasound used to analyze the intracranial structures of the brain

electroconvulsive therapy

the process of passing an electrical current through the brain to create a brief seizure in the brain

electroencephalography

measurement of electrical activity produced by brain and recorded through electrodes placed on the scalp

electromyography

the process of recording the strength of the contraction of a muscle when it is stimulat3ed by an electrical current

embolism

an abnormal condition in which a blood clot becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood within the vessel

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain or spinal cord tissue

epilepsy

a syndrome of recurring episodes of excessive irregular electrical activity of the central nervous sytem called seizures

generalized anxiety disorder

a disorder characterized by chronic, unrealistic, and excessive anxiety and worry

grand mal seizure

an epileptic seizure characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness, and generalized involuntary muscular contraction, vacillating between rigid body extension and an alternating contracting and relaxing of muscles

Guillain-Barré syndrome

acute polyneuritis of the peripheral nervous system in which the myelin sheaths of the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response, and sudden muscle weakness

headaches

a diffuse pain in different portions of the head and not confined to any nerve distribution area

hemiparesis

slight or partial paralysis of one half of the body

hemiplegia

paralysis of one-half of the body

hemorrhage

a loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time

herniated disk

rupture of herniation of the disk center through the disk wall and into the spinal canal, causing pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots

herpes zoster (a.k.a. shingles)

an acute viral infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox characterized by painful, vesicular lesions or eruptions on the skin following along the nerve pathways of underlying spinal or cranial nerves

Huntington's chorea

an inherited neurological disease characterized by rapid, jerky, involuntary movements and increasing dementia due to the effects of the basal ganglia on the neurons

hydrocephalus

an abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that caused the ventricles of the brain to dilate, resulting in an increased head circumference in the infant with open fontanel(s)

hyperesthesia

excessive sensitivity to sensory stimuli

hyperkinesis

excessive muscular movement and physical activity

hypnosis

a passive, trancelike state of existence that resembles normal sleep during which perception and memory are altered, resulting in increased responsiveness to suggestion

hypochondriasis

a chronic, abnormal concern about the health of the body, characterized by extreme anxiety, depression, and an unrealistic interpretation of real or imagined physical symptoms as indications of a serious illness or disease despite rational medical evidence that no disorder is present

intracranial tumors

occur in any structural region of the brain and may be malignant or benign classified as primary or secondary, and are named according to the tissue from which they originate

Kernig's sign

a diagnostic sign for meningitis marked by the person's inability to extend the leg completely when the thigh s flexed upon the abdomen and the person is sitting or lying down

kinesiology

the study of muscle movement

laminectomy

the surgical removal of the bony arches from one or more vertebrae in order to relieve pressure from the spinal cord

lethargy

a state of being sluggish, indifferent, apathetic

lumbar puncture

insertion of a hollow needle and stylet into the subarachnoid space

major depressive disorder

a disorder characterized by one or more episodes of depressed mood that lasts at least 2 weeks and is accompanied by at least four additional symptoms of at least four additional symptoms of depression

malingering

a willful and deliberate faking of symptoms of a disease or injury to gain some consciously desired end

meningitis

a serious bacterial infection of the meninges that can have residual debilitting effects or even a fatal outcome if not diagnosed and treated promptly with appropriate antibiotic therapy

meningocele

a cyst-like sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protruding through the bony defect in the vertebrae containing meninges

meningomyelocele

a cyst-like sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protruding through the bony defect in the vertebrae that contains meninges, CSF, and spinal cord segments

metastatic intracranial tumors

tumors occurring as a result of metastasis from a primary site

migraine

a recurring, pulsating, vascular headache usually developing on one side of the head

magnetic resonance imaging

a strong magnetic field and radio-frequency waves used to produce imaging that is valuable in providing images without the use of radiation

multiple sclerosis

a degenerative inflammatory disease of the central nervous system attacking the myelin sheath in the spinal cord and brain, leaving it hardened or scarred

Munchausen syndrome (by proxy)

a somewhat rare form of child abuse in which a parent of a child falsifies an illness in a child by fabricating or creating the symptoms, and then seeks medical care for the child

myasthenia gravis

a chronic progressive neuromuscular disorder and autoimmune disease in which antibodies block or destroy some acetylcholine receptor sites causing sever skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue

myelography

introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture in order to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral column through x-ray examination

narcolepsy

a sleep disorder that is characterized by a repeated, uncontrollable desire to sleep, often several times a day

nerve block

an injection of a local anesthetic along the course of a nerve or nerves to eliminate sensations to the area supplied by the nerve(s)

neuralgia

severe, sharp-like pain that extends along the course of one or more nerves

neurectomy

a neurosurgical procedure to relieve pain in a localized or small area by incision of cranial or peripheral nerves

neuritis

inflammation of a nerve

neuroblastoma

a highly malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system

nuchal rigidity

rigidity of the neck

obsessive-compulsive disorder

a disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are severe enough to be time consuming or to cause obvious distress or a notable handicap

occlusion

closure, or state of being closed

palliative

to soothe or relieve

panic disorder

a disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks that come on unexpectedly

paraparesis

a slight weakness or paralysis of both legs

paraplegia

paralysis of the lower extremities

paresthesia

a sensation of numbness or tingling

Parkinson's disease

a degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system, characterized by a gradual onset of symptoms

peripheral neuritis

a general term indicating inflammation of one or more peripheral nerves, the effects being dependent upon the particular nerve involved

petit mal seizure

small seizures in which there is a sudden, temporary loss of consciousness, lasting only a few seconds

pneumoencephalography

a process used to radiographically visualize one to radiographically visualize one of the ventricles or fluid occupying spaces in the central nervous system

poliomyelitis

an infectious viral disease entering through the upper respiratory tract and affecting the ability of the spinal cord and brain motor neurons to receive stimulation

polysomnogram

a sleep study that evaluates physical factors affecting sleep

positron emission tomography

a computerized x-ray technique that uses radioactive substances to examine the blood flow and the metabolic activity of various body structures

posttraumatic stress disorder

a disorder in which the individual experiences characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extremely traumatic event

primary intracranial tumors

arise from the gliomas, malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue, and tumors that are from the meninges

psychosis

any major mental disorder of organic or emotional characterized by a loss of contact with reality

quadriplegia

follows severe trauma to the spinal cord between the fifth and eighth cervical vertebra, generally resulting in loss of motor and sensory function below the level of the injury

radiculotomy (a.k.a. rhizotomy)

the surgical resection of a spinal nerve root

Reye's syndrome

acute brainencephalopathy along with fatty infiltration of the internal organs that may follow acute viral infections

Romberg test

used to evaluate cerebellar function and balance

schizophrenia

any of a large group of psychotic disorders characterized by gross distortion of reality, disturbances of language and communication, withdrawal from social interaction, and the disorganization and fragmentation of thought, perception, and emotional reaction

sciatica

inflammation of the sciatic nerve

shunt

a tube or passage that diverts or redirects body fluid from one cavity or vessel to another

skull fracture, depressed

a broken segment of the skull bone thrust into the brain as a result of a direct force

spina bifida cystica

a congenital defect of the central nervous system in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed normally and a cyst protrudes through the opening in the back

spina bifida occulta

a congenital defect of the central nervous system in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed normally and a cyst protrudes through the opening in the back

spinal cord injuries

severe injuries to the spinal cord

stereotaxic neurosurgery

on a precise location of an area within the brain that controls specific function(s) and may involve destruction of brain tissue with various agents such as heat, cold, and sclerosing or corrosive fluids

stupor

a state of lethargy

sympathectomy

a surgical procedure used to interrupt a portion of the sympathetic nerve pathway, for the purpose of relieving chronic pain

syncope

fainting

tension headache

a headache that occurs from long, endured contraction of the skeletal muscles around the face, scalp, upper back, and neck

thrombosis

an abnormal condition in which a clot develops in a blood vessel

tonic clonic seizure

a seizure characterized by the presence of muscle contraction or tension followed by relaxation, creating a "jerking" movement of the body

tractotomy

through a craniotomy the anterolateral pathway in the brain stem is surgically divided in an attempt to relieve pain

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

a form of cutaneous stimulation for pain relief that supplies electrical impulses to the nerve endings of a nerve close to the pain site

transient ischemic attack

brief periods of ischemia in the brain lasting from minutes to hours

trigeminal neuralgia

short periods of severe unilateral pain, which radiates along the fifth cranial nerve

whiplash

an injury to the cervical vertebrae and their supporting structures due to a sudden back-and-forth, jerking movement to the head and neck

a-

without, not

an-

without, not

-algesia

sensitivity to pain

alges/o

sensitivity to pain

brady-

slow

-algia

pain

cerebell/o

cerebellum

cerebr/o

cerebrum

crani/o

skull, cranium

encephal/o

brain

-esthesia

sensation or feeling

esthesi/o

feeling, sensation

gli/o

neuroglia or gluey substance

-kinesia

movement

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set