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Chapter 9

active acquired immunity

a form of long-term, acquired immunity that protects the body against a new infection as the result of antibodies that develop naturally after an initial infection or artificially after a vaccination

acute lymphocytic leukemia

predominated by immature lymphocytes and develops most frequently in children and adolescents

acute myelogenous leukemia

predominated by immature granulocytes

agglutination

the clumping together of cells as a result of interaction with specific antibodies called agglutinins

AIDS

a deadly virus; destroys the body's immune system by invading the helper T lymphocytes, which play an important part in the body's immune response

allergen

a substance that can produce a hyper sensitive reaction in the body

allergy

a hyper sensitive reaction to normally harmless antigens, most of which are environmental

anaphylaxis

an exaggerated, life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered antigen

anemia

a deficiency of oxygen being delivered to the cells because of a decrease in the quantity of hemoglobin or red blood cells

anisocytosis

an abnormal condition of the blood characterized by red blood cells of variable and abnormal size

aplastic anemia

anemia characterized by an inadequacy of all the formed blood elements

artificial acquired immunity

an individual receives a vaccine, antigen or toxoid to stimulate the formation of antibodies within his or her body.

ascites

an abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes

autologous blood transfusion

when a person receives blood or a blood component that has been previously collected from that person through reinfusion

bleeding time

measurement of the time required for bleeding to stop

blood transfusion

an administration of blood or a blood component to an individual to replace blood lost through surgery, trauma, or disease

bone marrow biopsy

the microscopic exam of bone marrow tissue, which fully evaluates hematopoiesis by revealing the number, shape, and size of the RBCs and WBCs and platelet precursors

bone marrow transplant

after receiving an intravenous infusion of aggressive chemotherapy or total body irradiation to destroy all malignant cells and to inactivate the immune system, a donor's bone marrow cells are infused intravenously into the recipient

chronic lymphocytic leukemia

predominated by exceptional amounts of lymphocytes found in the spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes that are abnormal, small, and mature

chronic myelogenous leukemia

has immature and mature granulocytes existing in the bloodstream and bone marrow

coagulation

the process of transforming a liquid into a solid, especially of the blood

complete blood cell count

a series of tests performed on peripheral blood, which inexpensively screens for problems in the hematologic sys

Coomb's test

blood test used to discover the presence of antierythorcyte antibodies present in the blood of an Rh negative woman

CT scan

a collection of x-ray images taken from various angles following injection of a contrast medium

cytomegalovirus

a large species-specific, herpes-type virus with a wide variety of disease effects

dyscrasia

an abnormal condition of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, or prenatal Rh incompatibility

edema

a local or generalized condition in which the body tissues contain an excessive amount to tissue fluid; swelling; generalized it is sometimes called dropsy

ELISA

a blood test used for screening for an antibody to the AIDS virus

erythremia

an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells; polycythemia vera

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

a test performed on the blood, which measures the rate at which red blood cells settle out of a tube of unclotted blood. It is determined by measuring the settling distance of RBCs in normal saline over 1 hour

erythropoiesis

the process of red blood cell production

granulocytosis

an abnormal elevated number of granulocytes in the circulating blood as a reaction to any variety of inflammation or infection

hematocrit

an assessment of RBC percentage in the total blood volume

hematologist

a medical specialist in the field of hematology

hematology

the scientific study of blood and blood-forming tissues

hemochromatosis

a rare ion metabolism disease characterized by iron deposits throughout the body, usually as a complication of one of the hemolytic anemias

hemoglobin

a complex protein-iron compound in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from the cells to the lungs

hemolysis

the breakdown of RBCs and the release of hemoglobin that occurs normally at the end of the life span of a red cell

hemophilia

a term used to define different hereditary inadequacies of coagulation factors resulting in prolonged bleeding times

Hemophilia A (classic hemophilia)

most common type of hemophilia which is the result of a deficiency or absence of antihemophilic factor VIII

Hemophilia B (Christmas disease)

the deficiency of a coagulation factor called factor IX

hemorrhage

a loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time, either externally or internally; may be arterial, venous, or capillary

hemostasis

the termination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means or by the complex coagulation process of the body, consisting of vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, and thrombin and fibrin synthesis

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

hyperalbuminemia

an increased level of albumin in the blood

hyperbilirubinemia

greater than normal amounts of the bile pigment bilirubin, in the blood

hyperlipidemia

an excessive level of fats in the blood

hypersensitivity

an abnormal condition characterized by an excessive reaction and resulting tissue damage to a particular stimulus

hypersplenism

a syndrome involving a deficiency of one or more types of blood cells and an enlarged spleen

immune reaction (response)

a defense function of the body that produces antibodies to destroy invading antigens and malignancies

immunity

the state of being resistant to or protected from a disease

immunization

the process of creating immunity to a specific disease

immunologist

the health specialist whose training and experience is concentrated in immunology

immunology

the study of the reaction of tissues of the immune system of the body to antigenic stimulation

immunotherapy

a special treatment of allergic responses that administers increasingly large doses of the offending allergens to gradually develop immunity agents that are capable of changing the relationship between a tumor and the host

iron deficiency anemia

characterized by deficient of hemoglobin level due to a lack of iron in the body. There is a greater demand on the stored iron than can be supplied by the body

Kaposi's Sarcoma

a malignant growth that begins as soft, brownish or purple raise areas on the feet and slowly spreads on the skin, spreading to the lymph nodes and internal organs

leukemia

excessive uncontrolled increase of immature WBCs in the blood eventually leading to infection, anemia, and thrombocytopenia (decreased number of platelets)

leukocytopenia

an abnormal decrease in number of white blood cells to fewer than ? Cells per cubic millimeter.

lipid profile

measurement of the lipids in the blood

local reaction

a reaction to treatment that occurs at the site where it was administered

lymphadenopathy

any disorder of the lymph nodes or vessels

lymphangiogram

an x-ray assessment of the lymphatic system following injection of a contrast medium into the lymph vessels in the hand or foot

lymphoma

a lymphoid tissue neoplasm that is typically malignant - beginning with a painless enlarged lymph node(s) and progressing to anemia, weakness, fever and weight loss

mononucleosis

usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); typically a benign, self-limiting acute infection of the B lymphocytes

multiple myeloma

a malignant plasma cell neoplasm causing an increase in the number of both mature and immature plasma cells, which often entirely replace the bone marrow and destroy the skeletal structure

myasthenia gravis

a chronic progressive neuromuscular disorder and autoimmune disease in which antibodies block or destroy some acetylcholine receptor sites causing severe skeletal muscle weakness (without atrophy) and fatigue, which occurs at different levels of severity

myeloid

of or pertaining to the marrow or spinal chord

natural acquired immunity

immunity to a disease agent gained by an individual after that individual has had the disease

pancytopenia

a marked reduction in the number of the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

partial thromboplastin test

a blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and system of clot formation within the body

passive acquired immunity

a form of acquired immunity resulting from antibodies that are transmitted naturally through the placenta to a fetus, through the colostrum to an infant, artificially by injection of antiserum or treatment or as a prophylaxis

pathogens

disease producing microorganisms

pernicious anemia

anemia resulting from a deficiency of mature RBCs and the formation and circulation of megaloblasts (large nucleated, immature, poorly functioning RBCs) with marked poikilocytosis and anisocytosis.

platelet count

the count of platelets per cubic millimeter of blood

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

pneumonia caused by a common worldwide parasite, Pneumocystis carinii, for which most people have immunity if they are not severely immunocompromised

poikilocytosis

RBC shape variation

polycythemia veran

an abnormal increase in the number of RBCs, granulocytes, and thrombocytes leading to an increase in blood volume and viscosity (thickness)

prothrombin time

a blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and extrinsic system of clot formation

purpura

a group of bleeding disorders characterized by bleeding into the skin and mucous membranes; small, pinpoint hemorrhages are known as petechia and larger hemorrhagic areas are known as ecchymoses or bruises

red blood cell count

the measurement of the circulating number of RBCs in one cubic millimeter of peripheral blood

resistance

the body's ability to counteract the effects of pathogens and other harmful agents

reticulocyte count

measurement of the number of circulating reticulocytes, immature erythrocytes, in a blood specimen

sarcoidosis

a systemic inflammatory disease resulting in the formation of multiple small, rounded lesions (granulomas) in the lungs (comprising %), lymph nodes, eyes, liver, and other organs

Schilling test

a diagnostic analysis for pernicious anemia

septicemia

systemic infection in which pathogens are present in the circulating bloodstream, having spread from an infection in any part of the body

serology

the branch of laboratory medicine that studies blood serum for evidence of infection by evaluating antigen-antibody reactions

sickle cell anemia

a chronic hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the RBCs become shaped like a crescent in the presence of low oxygen concentrations

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

splenomegaly

an abnormal enlargement of the spleen

susceptible

a state of having a lack of resistance to pathogens and other harmful agents

systemic reaction

a reaction that is evidenced by generalized body symptoms such as runny nose, itchy eyes, hives, and rashes

thalassemia

a hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the alpha or beta hemoglobin chains are defective and the production of hemoglobin is deficient, creating hypochronic microcytic RBCs

thrombocytopenia

an abnormal hematologic condition in which the number of platelets is reduced

thrombus

a clot

Western blot

detects the presence of the antibodies to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, used to confirm the validity of ELISA tests

white blood cell count

the measurement of the circulating number of WBCs in one cubic millimeter of peripheral blood

white blood cell differential

a measurement of the percentage of each specific type of circulating WBCs present in one cubic millimeter of peripheral blood drawn for the WBC count

agglutin/o

to clump

aniso-

unequal

bas/o

base

blast/o

embryonic stage of development

-blast

embryonic stage of development

chrom/o

color

coagul/o

clotting

cyt/o

cell

-emia

blood condition

eosin/o

red, rosy

erythr/o

red

-globin

containing protein

hem/o

blood

hemat/o

blood

is/o

equal

kary/o

nucleus

leuk/o

white

-lytic

destruction

morph/o

shape

myel/o

bone marrow or spinal cord

nucle/o

nucleus

-oid

resembling

-osis

condition

-penia

decrease in; deficiency

-phage

to eat

phag/o

to eat

-philia

attraction to

-phoresis

transmission

-poiesis

formation

poikil/o

varied; irregular

sider/o

iron

spher/o

round; sphere

-stasis

stopping or controlling

thromb/o

clot

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