Study Guide for Genetics Benchmark

35 terms by dylzulo

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a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent

asexual reproduction

a reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents

sexual reproduction

mitosis

process involved in asexual reproduction

meiosis

process involved in sexual reproduction

one

Number of parents in asexual reproduction

identical to the parent

What do the offspring looks like in asexual reproduction?

two

Number of parents in sexual reproduction

genetic diversity

the benefit of Sexual Reproduction

sex cells or gametes

types of cells formed during meiosis

four

number of cells formed through meiosis

two

number of divisions in meiosis

half the number of the parent cell

number of chromosomes of sex cells in comparison to the parent cell

egg and sperm

name of two sex cells (gametes)

46

number of chromosomes in human body cells

23

number of chromosomes in human sex cells

TT

allele combination of Homozygous Dominant

Tt

allele combination of Heterozygous Hybrid

tt

allele combination of Homozygous Recessive

having two different alleles for a trait

Heterozygous

having two identical alleles for a trait

Homozygous

the factors that control a trait

Gene

the passing of physical characteristics from parents to offspring

Heredity

Gregor Mendel

Father of Genetics

attached ears vs hanging
straight hairline vs widow's peak

2 traits that we have learned aout that are contolled by a single gene

height and skin color

2 traits that we have learned aout that are contolled by a multiple gene

physical appearance or visible traits.

Phenotype

genetic makeup, or allele combinations

Genotype

a change in a gene or chromosome

Mutation

DNA has two strands; RNA has only one. RNA contains a different sugar molecule from the sugar found in DNA. Like DNA, RNA contains adenine, guanine, and cytosine. However, instead of thymine, RNA contains uracil

Differences between DNA and RNA

copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus, and carries the message to the ribosome in the cytoplasm

responsability of Messanger RNA

carries amino acids to the ribosome and adds them to the growing protein

responsability of Transfer RNA

A carrier can pass the recessive allele on to his her offspring while the one having it will definite pass it to his or her offspring

difference between being a carrier of and having a genetic disease

XY

combination of chromosomes of a male?

a gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosome

sex-linked gene?

XX

combination of chromosomes of a female?

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