Biology Reproduction test

33 terms by shawkes10 

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Glenbrook south, biology studies. Ericksen. 2010

Asexual reproduction

reproduction by a single parent which produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent

Binary Fission

splitting in half of a one-celled organism. Examples: bacteria, amoeba, paramecium, and euglena

Budding

asexual reproduction in animals in which a new organism is produced by means of an outgrowth that breaks off from the parent's body wall. Examples: hydra, anemones, and fungi such as yeast

Conjugation

process in which paramecia and some prokaryotes exchange genetic material. may occur across a bridge of cytoplasm .

Parthenogenesis

Females of some species produce eggs that develop without being fertilized. Examples: aphids, bees, ants

Sexual reproduction

haploid gametes (egg and sperm formed by meiosis) from two parents unite to form diploid zygote. may increase genetic diversity.

Hermaphrodites

have both male and female organs

External Fertilization

Egg fertilized outside the female's body. Embryo develops outside the female's body. Requires water and large numbers of eggs and sperm.
Decreased chance of fertilization.

Internal Fertilization

Egg fertilized inside the female's body. Embryo develops inside the female's body. Requires specialized organs and mating rituals
Increased chance of fertilization with smaller number of gametes.

Oviparous

embryo develops in egg outside parent's body

Ovoviviparous

embryo develops in egg inside mother's body; rely on yolk

Viviparous

Viviparous - embryo

Metamorphosis

process of changes in shape and form of a larva into an adult

Incomplete Metamorphosis

gradual growth of an arthropod that involves change in size, but not form

complete Metamorphosis

egg, larva, pupa, adult

Scrotum

external sac which holds the testes. The scrotum helps maintain a temperature which is 1-3o C lower than body temperature.

Testes

produce sperm and the hormone testosterone. They are made up of seminiferous tubules (site of sperm production)

Epididymis

site of sperm maturation and storage; tails develop here.

Vas deferens

passageway for sperm from the testes to the urethra. Collects fluids from 3 different glands to produce seminal fluids (fluids + sperm = semen)

Seminal vesicle

produces fluid with sugar (fructose) to give sperm energy

Prostate gland

adds more fluid to nourish sperm

Bulbourethral (Cowper's )gland

secretes fluid into urethra for lubrication and acid neutralization

Urethra

passageway for urine and semen to exit the body; starts at the bladder and travels out through the penis

Penis

external organ which deposits semen into the female

male puberty

or Maturation. is signaled by the hormone FSH which stimulates the testes to produce testosterone.
Shoulders broaden, Larynx enlarges, Pubic hair grows, Facial hair grows, Muscles develop

Ovaries

produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone. They also contain follicles that mature into ova (eggs).

Fallopian tubes

(oviducts) are the passageway from the ovary to the uterus. Fertilization usually takes place here. Cilia line the oviduct to help sweep the ovum to the uterus.

Uterus

(womb) muscular organ that develops a lining that will nourish a fertilize egg. This is the structure in which a fetus will develop.

Cervix

opening between the uterus and vagina.

Vagina

(birth canal) location where sperm are deposited, and passage for baby during normal birth.

Female Puberty

Widening of the hips,Development of breasts, Maturation of the reproductive system, Growth of pubic hair, Beginning of the menstrual cycle

LH

lutenizing hormone

FSH

follicle stimulating hormone

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