Human Bio Muscles

61 terms by hrkonicki

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frontalis

o: cranial aponeurosis
i: skin of eyebrows
a: elevates eyebrows

sternocleidomastoid

o: sternum, clavicle
i: temporal bone
a: elevate/rotates head

rectus abdominus

o: pubis
i: sternum, ribs
a: flex vertebral column

Sartorious

o: ilium
i: tibia
a: flex tibia

rectus femoris

o: ilium
i: tibia
a: extends tibia

tibialis anterior

o: tibia
i: metatarsals
a: dorsiflex/invert metatarsals (foot)

gastrocnemius

o: femur
i: calcaneus
a: plantar flex foot

vastus lateralis

o: femur
i: tibia
a: extends tibia

external oblique

o: ribs
i: ilium
a: flex/rotate vertebral column

biceps brachii

o: humerus
i: radius
a: flex radius

pectoralis major

o: sternum
i: humerus
a: medially rotate humerus

deltoid

o: scapula, clavicle
i: humerus
a: abduct humerus

trapezius

o: occipital bone, cervical/thoracic vertebrae
i: scapula, clavicle
a: elevates scapula

latissimus dorsi

o: spinal chord, ilium
i: humerus
a: extend/adduct humerus

gluteus medius

o: ilium
i: femur
a: abducts femur

gluteus maximus

o: sacrum, ilium
i: femur
a: extends femur

biceps femoris

o: ischium
i: tibia
a: flex tibia

semitendinosus

o: ischium
i: tibia
a: flex tibia

soleus

o: tibia/fibula
i: calcaneus
a: plantar flex foot

vastus medialis

o: femur
i: tibia
a: extend tibia

adductor muscles

o: ischium
i: femur
a: adduct femur

triceps brachii

o: humerus
i: ulna
a: extend ulna

endomysium

covers each muscle fiber

perimysium

covers each fascicle

epimysium

covers entire muscle

aponuerosis

flat, cordlike tendon

smooth muscle

no striations, involuntary

sarcolemma

plasma membrane

myofibrils

long, ribbonlike nueclei

sarcomeres

smallest contractile unit

myofilaments

threadlike protein inside sarcomere

thick (myosin) filament

made up of protein myosin, contain ATPase enzymes (split ATP to generate power of muscle contraction)

crossbrigdes

link thick and thin filaments together during contraction

thin (actin) filaments

made up of protein actin, plus regulatory proteins that play a role in allowing or preventing myosin head-binding to actin

sarcoplasmic reticulum

specialized, smooth endoplasmic reticulum; sacs and tubules surround each myofibril

muscle twitches

...

fused (complete) tetanus

when the muscle is stimulated so rapidly that no evidence of relaxation is seen ad the contractions are completely smooth and sustained

unfused (incomplete) tetanus

until the muscle reaches fused tetanus

lactic acid

what pyruvic acid in converted into during glycolysis

anaerobic glycolysis

...

muscle fatigue

when a muscle is unable to contract even though it is being stimulated

isotonic contractions

the myofilaments are successful in their sliding movements, the muscle shortens, movement occurs

isometric contractions

contractions in which the muscles do not shorten

muscle tone

state of continuous partial contractions, result of different motor units being stimulated by the nervous system in a systematic way

aerobic/endurance

greater resistance to fatigue

resistance/isometric

muscles are pitted against some immovable object, or nearly so

flexion

decreases the angle of the joint and brings two bones closer together

extension

increases the angle between two bones

rotation

movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis

abduction

moving a limb away from the midline

adduction

movement of a limb toward the midline

circumduction

proximal end of the limb is stationary and its distal end moves in a circle

supination

radius and ulna are parallel

pronation

radius rotates over ulna

synergists

help prime movers by producing the same movement or removing undesireable movements

fixators

specialized synergists; hold a bone still or stabilize the origin of a prime mover so all tension can be used to move the insertion

circular

when the fascicles are arranged in concentric rings

convergent

fascicles converge toward a single insertion tendon

fusiform

spindle shaped muscle with an expanded belly

pennate

short fascicles attach obliquely to a central tendon

parallel

the length of the fascicles run parallel to the long axis of the muscle

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