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Progressivism

the political orientation of those who favor progress toward better conditions in government and society

Enlightenment

the Enlightenment, a philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and educational doctrine.

Antebellum

A descriptive term for objects and institutions, especially houses, that originated three or four decades before the Civil War

Fundamentalism

a movement in American Protestantism that arose in the early part of the 20th century in reaction to modernism and that stresses the infallibility of the Bible not only in matters of faith and morals but also as a literal historical record, holding as essential to Christian faith belief in such doctrines as the creation of the world, the virgin birth, physical resurrection, atonement by the sacrificial death of Christ, and the Second Coming.

Acquiescent

willing to carry out the orders or wishes of another without protest

Ingratiate

to establish (oneself) in the favor or good graces of others, esp. by deliberate effort

Staunchly

Firm and steadfast; true

Pacifist

a person who believes in pacifism or is opposed to war or to violence of any kind.

Curmudgeon

a bad-tempered, difficult, cantankerous person.

Nationalism

national spirit or aspirations.

Suffrage

the right to vote, esp. in a political election.

Isolationism

the policy or doctrine of isolating one's country from the affairs of other nations by declining to enter into alliances, foreign economic commitments, international agreements, etc., seeking to devote the entire efforts of one's country to its own advancement and remain at peace by avoiding foreign entanglements and responsibilities.

Subsidy

a sum paid, often in accordance with a treaty, by one government to another to secure some service in return.

Internment

the state of being interned; confinement.

Coalition

a union into one body or mass; fusion.

Flux

a flowing or flow

Burgeoning

To grow or develop rapidly.

Voluntarism

ny policy or practice based on voluntary action.

Evangelicals

Characterized by ardent or crusading enthusiasm

Provincial

Limited in perspective; narrow and self-centered.

Egalitarian

asserting, resulting from, or characterized by belief in the equality of all people, esp. in political, economic, or social life.

Expatriates

To remove (oneself) from residence in one's native land.

Mercantilism

mercantile practices or spirit; commercialism.

Imperialism

he policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.

Commerce

an interchange of goods or commodities, esp. on a large scale between different countries (foreign commerce) or between different parts of the same country (domestic commerce); trade; business.

Intrastate

existing or occurring within the boundaries of a state, esp. of the United States: intrastate commerce.

Nullification

(often initial capital letter) the failure or refusal of a U.S. state to aid in enforcement of federal laws within its limits, esp. on Constitutional grounds

Utopian ism

The ideals or principles of a utopian; idealistic and impractical social theory.

Capitalist

A supporter of capitalism.

Patronage

The trade given to a commercial establishment by its customers

Annex

. to attach, append, or add, esp. to something larger or more important.

Mystique

a framework of doctrines, ideas, beliefs, or the like, constructed around a person or object, endowing the person or object with enhanced value or profound meaning

Methodism

# The beliefs, worship, and system of organization of the Methodists. # methodism Emphasis on systematic procedure

Vigilantism

any person who takes the law into his or her own hands, as by avenging a crime.

Embargo

an order of a government prohibiting the movement of merchant ships into or out of its ports.

Yeoman

a servant, attendant, or subordinate official in a royal or other great household.

Escalation

to increase in intensity, magnitude, etc.: to escalate a war; a time when prices escalate.

Insurgency

rebellion within a group, as by members against leaders

Interstate

connecting or involving different states: interstate commerce.

Laissez faire

economic ideology which advocates minimal state intervention on the economy.

Socialism

a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.

Enfranchise

1. to grant a franchise to; admit to citizenship, esp. to the right of voting.

Romanticism

often Romanticism An artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual's expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions.

Belligerent

of warlike character; aggressively hostile;

Conscription

compulsory enrollment of persons for military or naval service; draft

Trust

A Trust is an entity created to hold assets for the benefit of certain persons or entities, with a trustee managing the trust (and often holding title on behalf of the trust)

Sovereignty

rightful status, independence, or prerogative.

Electorate

the body of persons entitled to vote in an election.

Dismal

causing gloom or dejection;

Populism

(lowercase) any of various, often antiestablishment or anti-intellectual political movements or philosophies that offer unorthodox solutions or policies and appeal to the common person rather than according with traditional party or partisan ideologies.

Vindicate

to afford justification for; justify:

Idiom

The specific grammatical, syntactic, and structural character of a given language.

Labor Union

an organization of wage earners or salaried employees for mutual aid and protection and for dealing collectively with employers; trade union.

Alienation

the state of being withdrawn or isolated from the objective world, as through indifference or disaffection.

Dissenter

One who refuses to accept the doctrines or usages of an established or a national church, especially a Protestant who dissents from the Church of England.

Sectional

pertaining or limited to a particular section; local or regional:

Realism

the tendency to view or represent things as they really are.

Fraudulent

given to or using fraud, as a person; cheating; dishonest.

Collective Bargaining

the process by which wages, hours, rules, and working conditions are negotiated and agreed upon by a union with an employer for all the employees collectively whom it represents

Zealous

ardently active, devoted, or diligent.

Gentry

an upper or ruling class; aristocracy.

Communism

a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

Exacerbate

o embitter the feelings of (a person); irritate; exasperate.

Stagnation

state of inactivity (in business or art etc); "economic growth of less than 1% per year is considered to be economic stagnation"

Excise

an internal tax or duty on certain commodities, as liquor or tobacco, levied on their manufacture, sale, or consumption within the country.

Agrarian

relating to land, land tenure, or the division of landed property: agrarian laws.

Vaudeville

theatrical piece of light or amusing character, interspersed with songs and dances.

Militarist

a person skilled in the conduct of war and military affairs.

Steadfast

irm in purpose, resolution, faith, attachment, etc., as a person:

Detente

a relaxing of tension, esp. between nations, as by negotiations or agreements

Bimetallic

pertaining to a monetary system based on two metals; "in a bimetallistic system both gold and silver can constitute legal tender

Reactionary

Characterized by reaction, especially opposition to progress or liberalism; extremely conservative.

Culminate

to end or arrive at a final stage

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