Holt-Bio-Chapter 7-Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

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Formation of Haploid cells, meiosis and genetic variation, meiosis and gamete formation, sexual and asexual reproduction, sexual life cycles in eukaryotes

meiosis

A process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells

crossing-over

The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis; can result in genetic recombination

independent assortment

The random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes

spermatogenesis

The process by which make gametes form

sperm

The male gamete

ovum

A mature egg cell

asexual reproduction

Reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent

sexual reproduction

Reproduction in which gametes from two parents unite

oogenesis

The production, growth, and maturation of an egg, or ovum

clone

An organism that is produced by asexual reproduction and that is genetically identical to its parent; to make a genetic duplicate

life cycle

All of the events in the growth and development of an organism until the organism reaches sexual maturity

fertilization

The union of a male and female gamete to form a zygote

sporophyte

In plants and algae that have alternation of generations, the diploid individual or generation that produces haploid spores

gametophyte

In alternation of generations, the phase in which gametes are formed; a haploid individual that produces gametes.

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