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Which of these is a correct representation of the hierarchy of biological organization from least to most complex?

A. Organelle of a stomach cell, digestive system, large intestine, small intestine, intestinal tissue, organism

B. Organelle of an intestinal cell, digestive system, small intestine, large intestine, intestinal tissue, organism

C. Molecule, intestinal cell organelle, intestinal cell, intestinal tissue, digestive system, organism

D. molecule, small intestine, large intestine, intestinal tissue, digestive system, organism

C. Molecule, intestinal cell organelle, intestinal cell, intestinal tissue, digestive system, organism

The lowest level of biological organization that can perform all the activities required for life is the . .
A. Organelle
B. Cell
C. tissue
D. organ system
E. organism

B. Cell

When blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin, and as a result blood glucose level declines. When blood glucose level is low, the pancreas secretes insulin, and as a result blood glucose level declines. When blood glucose level is low the pancreas secretes glucagon, and a result blood level rises. Such regulation of blood glucose level is the result of

A. Catalytic feedback
B. Positive feedback
C. Negative feedback
D. Bioinformatic regulation
E. protein-protein interactions

C. Negative feedback

Prokaryotes are classified as belong to two different domains. What are the domains?

A. Bacteria and Eukarya
B. Archaea and Monera
C. Eukarya and Monera
D. Bacteria and Protista
E. Bacteria and Archaea

E. Bacteria and Archaea

Species that are in the same ____ are more closely related than species that are only in the same _____.
A. Phylum; class
B.Family; order
C. Class; order
D. Family; genus
E. Kingdom; Phylum

B.Family; order

Trace elements are those required by an organism on only minute quatities. Which of the following is a trace element that is required by humans and other vertebrates?

A. Nitrogen
B. Calcium
C. Iodine
D. Sodium
E. Phosphorus

C. Iodine

An example of a hydrogen bond is the bond between
A. C and H in methane CH4
B. The H of one water molecule and the O of another water molecule
C. Na+ and Cl- in salt
D. the two hydrogen atoms in a molecule of hydrogen gas (H2)
E. Mg+ and Cl- in MgCl2

B. The H of one water molecule and the O of another water molecule

Water is able to form hydrogen bonds because
A. Oxygen has a valence of 2
B. the water molecule is shaped like a tetrahedron
C. The bonds that hold together the atoms in a water molecule are polar covalent bonds
D. the oxygen atom in a water molecule has a weak positive charge
E. Each of the hydrogen atoms in water molecule is weakly negative in charge

C. The bonds that hold together the atoms in a water molecule are polar covalent bonds

Which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize?
A. Ionic Bonds
B. Nonpolar covalent bonds
C. Polar covalent
D. Hydrogen bonds
E. Covalent bonds

D. Hydrogen bonds

Why does ice float in liquid water?
A. the liquid water molecules have more kinetic energy and thus support the ice
B. ionic bonds between the molecules in ice prevent the ice from sinking
C. Ice always has air bubbles that keep it afloat
D. Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water
E. the crystalline lattice of ice causes it to be denser than liquid water

D. Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water

What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen ion concentration of 10^-8
A. pH 2
B. pH 4
C. pH 6
D. pH 8
E. pH 10

D. pH 8

Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydroxyl ions [OH-}
A. lemon juice at pH 2
B. Vinegar at pH 3
C. tomato juice at pH 4
D. Urine at pH 6
E. Seawater at pH 8

A. lemon juice at pH 2

If the pH of a solution is decreased from 9 to 8 it means that the
A. Concentration of H+ has decreased to one tenth what it was at pH 9
B. Concentration of H+ has increased 10x compared to what it was at pH 9
C. Concentration of OH- has increased 10x compared to what it was at pH 9
D. Concentration of OH- has decreased to 1/10
E. Both B and D correct

E. Both B and D are correct

Research indicates that acid precipitation can damage living organisms by
A. Buffering aquatic systems such as lakes and streams
B. decreasing the H+ concentration of lakes and stream
C. increasing the OH- concentration of lakes and stream
D. washing away certain mineral ions that help buffer soil solution and are essential nutrients for plant growth
E. Both B and C

D. washing away certain mineral ions that help buffer soil solution and are essential nutrients for plant growth

You have two beakers; one contains pure water, the other contains pure methanol. The covalent bonds of methanol molecular are nonpolar, so there are no hydrogen bonds among methanol molecules. You pour crystals of table salt (NaCl into each beaker. Predict what will happen.
A. Equal amounts of naCl crystals will dissolve in both water and methanol
B. NaCl crystals will NOT dissolve in either
C. NaCl crystals will dissolve in water but not in methanol
D. NaCl crystals will dissolve in methanol but not water
E. when the first crystals are added to water or methanol, they will not dissolve, but as more are added they will begin to ddissolve faster

C. NaCl crystals will dissolve in water but not in methanol

What is a carbonyl group?

A carbon atom joined to an oxygen by a double bond

Which of the following contains nitrogen in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen?
A. An alcohol such as ethanol
B. a monosaccharide such as glucose
C. a steroid such as testosterone
D. an amino acid such as glycine
E. a hydrocarbon such as benzene

D. an amino acid such as glycine

Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
A. ketone and aldehyde
B. carbonyl and carboxyl
C. carboxyl and amino
D. Phosphate and sulfhydryl
E. hydroxyl and aldehyde

C. carboxyl and amino

Amino acids are acids because they always possess which functional group?

Carboxyl

A chemist wishes to make an organic molecule less acidic. Which of the following functional groups should be added to the molecule in order to do so?
A. Carboxyl
B. Sulfhdryl
C. hydroxyl
D. amino
E. phosphate

D. amino

Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
A. Dehydration assembles polymers, hydrolysis breaks down polymers
B. Macromolecular synthesis occurs through removal of water and digestion occurs through addition of water
C. dehydration reaction can occur only after hydrolysis
D. hydrolysis creates monomers and dehydration reactions break down polymers
E. A and B correct

E. A and B are correct

humans can digest starch but not cellulose because
A. The monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is galactose
B. Humans have enzyme that can hydrolyze the beta glycosidic linkages of starch but not the alpha glycosidic linkages of cellulose
C. Humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the alpha glycosidic linkages of starch but not the beta glycosidic linkages of cellulose

C. Humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the alpha glycosidic linkages of starch but not the beta glycosidic linkages of cellulose

What is true of an unsaturated fatty acid?

It is usually liquid at room temperature

Why are human sex hormones considered to be lipids?

They are steroids, which are not soluble in water

All of the following contain amino acids except.
A. hemoglobin
B. Cholesterol
C. Antibodies
D. Enzymes
E. Insulin

B. Cholesterol

Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of protein?

Peptide bonds

At which level of protein structure are interactions between the side chains (R groups) most important?

tertiary

What is the term used for a change in a protein's 3-dimensional shape or conformation due to disruption of hydrogen bonds, disulfide bonds, or ionic bonds?

Denaturation

What is the term used for a protein molecule that assists in the proper folding of other proteins?

Chaperonin

Which is a functional group that helps stabilize proteins by forming covalent cross-links within or between protein molecules?

-SH (disulfide bridges)

What are ketones?

Carbonyl ( C=O) functional groups in the middle of a molecule

Which is a branched carbohydrate made in plants?

amylopectin

What do you call the covalent bond that connects a fatty acid to the hydroxyl group on glycerol?

Esther bond

Why does water take longer than methanol to absorb heat?

Water has a high specific heat due to hydrogen bonds

What is a method for the transport of CO2, which provides a buffering system for blood?

CO2 combines with H2O to form carbonic acid and then bicarbonate

In what ways do testosterone and estradiol (male and female sex hormones) differ?

Different functional group attached to same carbon skeleton

Metabolism of which of the following molecules results in the greatest net usable energy per gram?

Triglyceride (fat)

Which occurs in both fermentation and aerobic respiration?

ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate

In mammals, which of the following substances is produced in a muscles that operates anaerobically?
A. acetyl CoA
B. Citrate
C. NAPH
D. lactate
E. Oxygen

D. Lactate

The flow of which of the following into the mitochondrial matrix provides the chemiosmotic energy for the synthesis of ATP?

Protons (proton gradient)

The Net result of glycolysis

2 ATP and 2 NADH

The process that produces the greatest amount of ATP during respiration is. . .

Oxidative phosphorylation

A chemical reaction with a negative delta G

exergonic

Which of the following best describes allosteric inhibition of an enzyme
A. The inhibitor binds to the mRNA to prevent translation of the enzyme
B. the inhibitor binds the the enzyme substrate
C. the inhibitor binds to the enzyme but not at its active site
D. the inhibitor binds to the enzyme at its active site

C. the inhibitor binds to the enzyme but not at its active site (if it was to bind at its active site it would be a competitive inhibitor)

The molecule that functions as the electron donor in a redox reaction
A. gains electrons and energy
B. loses electrons and energy
C. gains electrons and loses energy
D. loses electrons and gain energy

B. loses electrons and energy

What is formed by the removal of a carbon from one molecule of pyruvate?

Acetyl CoA

How many molecules of carbon dioxide would be produced by 5 turns of citric acid cycle?

10

What would lead to an increases in concentration of ATP in a cell?

increases in catabolic activity

During aerobic cellular respirations, electrons travel downhill in which sequence?

food; NADH; electron transport chain; oxygen

Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?

Mitochondrial inner membrane

The metabolic function of fermentation is to

oxidize NADH to NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue in absence of oxygen

When pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA

a multienzyme complex removes a carboxyl group, transfer electrons to NAD+ and attaches a coenzyme

When glucose is oxidized 40% of energy is transferred to

ATP

The mechanism in which the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in the pathway is known as

feedback inhibition

How does pyruvate enter the mitochondrion?

active transport

For each molecule of glucose that is metabolized by glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, what is the total number of NADH and FADH2 molecules produced?

12

During aerobic respiration, H20 is formed. Where does the oxygen for the synthesis of water come from?

molecular oxygen

Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pimp H+ ions into which location?

intermembrane space

Where is the ATP synthase located?

inner membrane

When is carbon dioxide released in cellular respiration?

oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and citric acid cycle

which best describes NAD+?

Reduced to NADH during both glycolysis and citric acid cycle

When you have a severe fever, what may be a grave consequence if not controlled?

change in the folding of enzymes

What in the cell membrane is responsible for active transport?

protein

When a substances moves across gradient faster than simple diffusion this is called

facilitated diffusion

What is true of intercellular junctions?

They help integrate cells into functioning unit

A prokaryotic cell uses which of following?
A. centrioles
B. lysosomes
C. plasma membrane
D. mitochondria
E. endoplasmic reticulum

C. Plasma membrane

Simple diffusion and facilitated diffused are related in that both

depend on concentration gradient

If red blood cells in isotnic medium are placed in distilled water, what will happen?

swell and lyse

Which of the following is matched with its function?
A. lysosome ... lipid hydrolysis
B. nucleolus...protein synthesis
C. ribosome ...carbohydrate synthesis

A. lysosome ... lipid hydrolysis

What summarizes the proteins pathway in cell?

Rough ER -> Golgi -> vesicle -> plasma membrane

If a potato slice was placed in a beaker of distilled water, what will occur?

it would gain mass

The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs? What structure is involved in this process?

Smooth ER

A cell has the following: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, mitochondria; it would be

a plant or animal cel

Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures?

cytoskeleton

A cell lacking the ability to make and secrete glycoproteins would most likely be deficient in its

Extracellular matrix and Golgi apparatus

What is capable of sending signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton?

integrins

Which is present in prokaryotic cell?
A. mitochondrion
B. ribosome
C. nuclear envelope
D. chloroplast
E. endoplasmic reticulum

B. ribosome

What cell would be best for studying lysosomes?

phagocytic white blood cell

Which structure is mismatched?
A. nucleolous ..production of ribosomal subunits
B. lysosome...intracellular digestion
C.ribosome...protein synthesis
D.Golgi...Protein trafficking
E. microtubule..muscle contraction

E. microtubule..muscle contraction

The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals

enables the membranes to stay fluid more easily when temp. drops

What is most important for glycoproteins and glycolipids of animal cell membranes?

a cells ability to distinguish one type of neighboring cell from another

What is a characteristic of a carrier protein in plasma membrane?

It exhibits a specificity for a particular type of molecule

How is water able to pass easily through membrane?

aquaporins

What do chloride ion channels include?

hydrophilic reaction

If a plant cell is emerged in very hypotonic solution what will occur?

it will become turgid

What is best solutions for typical animal and plant cells?

animal cell in an isotonic environment, and plant cells in hypotonic

What produces and modifies polysaccharides that will be secreted?

Golgi Apparatus

What organelle is involved in synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?

Smooth ER

Microfilaments are well known for their role of

ameboid movement, formation of cleavage furrow, and contracting muscle cells

What do the enzymes of peroxisomes do?

transfer hydrogens to oxygen molecules

What do microtubules make up?

cilia and flagella

In an animal cell fractionation procedure, the first pellet formed would be

nuclei

If 2n = 28 for a cell, then the chromosome number in each cell after meiosis would be

24 (it results in 4 haploid cells)

Independent assortment occurs in which of the following phase?

metaphase I

What is inversion?

Part of a chromosome breaks away and reattaches to same chromosome in reverse orientation

What is translocation?

Part of chromosome breaks away and attaches to non homologous chromosome

Is "wild type" dominant or recessive?

dominant

Is eye color dominant or recessive?

recessive

Mendel's observation of the segregation of alleles in gamete formation has its basis in which of the following?

Anaphase I of meiosis

What is pleiotropy?

What gene has multiple effects

What is a nonsense codon?

Protein synthesis termination triplet

What would you expect of a eukaryotic cell lacking telomerase?

A reduction in chromosome length

How does RNA polymerase differ from DNA polymerase?

RNA polymerase can initiate RNA synthesis, but DNA polymerase requires a primer to initiate DNA synthesis

What is a ribozyme?

an RNA with enzymatic activity

What is the effect of a nonsense mutation in a gene?

It introduces a premature stop codon

A frameshift mutation could result from

either an insertion or a deletion of a base

An okazaki fragment has which of the follwing?

5' RNA nucleotides, DNA nucleotides 3'

In a linear eukaryotic chromatin sample, which of the following strands is looped into domains by scaffolding?

the 30 nm chromatin fiber

What is the function of a signal peptide?

to translocate polypeptides across the messenger RNA

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