Vocabulary: Genetic Engineering & The Human Genome

19 terms by wwjd710

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Using Holt vocabulary

Autosome

chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

Clone

member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell

DNA Fingerprinting

analysis of sections of DNA that have little or no known function, but vary widely from one individual to another in order to identify individuals

Gel Electrophoresis

procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel

Genetic Engineering

process of making changes in the DNA codes of living organisms

Genetic Marker

gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't

Hybridization

breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms

Inbreeding

continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms

Karyotype

photograph of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs

Nondisjunction

error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate

Pedigree

chart that shows the relationships within family

Plasmid

small circular piece of DNA

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene

Recombinant DNA

DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources

Restriction Enzyme

enzyme that cuts DNA of a specific sequence of nucleotides

Selective Breeding

method of breeding that allows only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation

Sex Chromosome

one of two chromosomes that determine an individual's sex

Sex-linked Gene

gene located on the X or Y chromosome

Transgenic

term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms

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