Vitamins

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Antioxidant Vitamins

Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
Selenium
Beta-Carotene

Antioxidants

compounds in the diet made in cells that work to prevent damage to cells and tissues caused by oxidation

Vitamin

an essential non-caloric organic nutrient needed in small amounts in the diet

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

ADEK
-stored in the liver
-found in fats and oils in foods
Can reach toxic levels if too much is consumed form supplements
-not excreted through urine

Vitamin A

active form Retinol
-most important of all vitamins
-widespread throughout most developing countries
-deficiency can lead to blindness in children
-stored in the liver
-absorption is directly related to the amount of fat in diet
-colorless
-weak antioxidant

Roles of Vitamin A

-gene expression
-vision
-maintenance of body linings
-immune deficiencies
-growth of bones and of the body
-normal development of the body
-reproduction

RDA's of Vitamin A

900 mcg for men
700 for women
Toxicity 3000 REAs

Precusor's to Vitamin A

Either Retinyl Esters(animals) or Beta-Carotene(plants). Retinyl Esters turn into Reitnol and Beta-Carotene turns into Retinal. These two then become interchangable, and then can turn into Retininoic Acid

Vitamin A Deficency

Stunt of Growth
Night Blindness
Malformation of tooth enamel and gums
xerophthalmia causes children to go blind

Vitamin A Toxicity

excessive irritability
Swelling over the long bones
Dry and Itching Skin

Beta-Carotene

-comes from yellow to orange colored plant foods and green leafy vegetables.
-Most abundant precursor of vitamin A
-12 mg=1 mg of retinol
-absorbed through the lymph

Beta-Carotene Toxicity

Carotenosis-orange color of the skin

Vitamin C

Antioxidant
Water-Soluble
Most Easily destroyed by light, heat or air
Collagen formation
helps prevent anemia
enhances calcium and iron absorption
needed to make proteins for wound healing

Vitamin C Deficiency

-loss of appetite -anemia
-growth cessation -Red Spots on Skin
-tenderness to touch - weakness
-loose teeth -bleeding gums
-swollen ankles and wrists -scury

Vitamin C RDA's

75mg for women
90mg for men
2000mg TUL

Vitamin E

-tocopherols
-fat soluble
-antioxidant
-comes from salad oils, and other oils and whole grains, liver, beans, fruits, and vegetables
-destroyed by light and oxidation

Functions of Vitamin E

lowers LDL's
Development and maintenance of nerves and muscles
protects cells in the immune system
protects vitamin a from oxidation

Vitamin E RDA's

15 mg for all adults
TUL 1000 mg

Vitamin E Deficency

red blood cell breakage and nerve damage

Vitamin E Toxicity

bad for anti-clotting medication

Selenium

-assists a group of enzymes in protecting vulnerable chemicals from oxidation
-activates thyroxin
-helps prevent prostate cancer
-supports immune system

DRI of Selenium

55 ug
TUL 400 ug

Selenium Deficency

-heart disease, Keshan Disease

Thyroxin

hormone produced in thyroid gland, regulates metabolism

Needs for healthy bones and teeth

calcium
phosphorus
vitamin d
vitamin k
fluoride

Minerals

loss through urine
insufficiency (primary)
poor utilization (secondary)
causes stunted growth

Calcium Absorption

occurs in duodenum
the higher the need and the lower content in diet the greater efficiency
influenced by vitamin d
Keeps other nutrients from binging with Iron

Functions of Calcium

combines with phosphorous to form "cortical bone"

Vitamin D

AL 5 mcg
50% made by sunlight

Vitamin D deficiency

Adult Rickets, bowed legs beading of the ribs

Hypervitaminosis D

most toxic vitamin

Precursot to Vitamin D

Cholecalciferol

Phosphorus

second most abundant mineral in body
needed to make ATP
makes part of cell membrane
to much is bad bc negative charge attracts to CA making insoluble

Phosphorus RDA's

700 mg
TUL 4,000 mg

Functions of Phosphorus

combines with calcium to give teeth and bones rigidity
used in body energy reactions
needed for brain and nerve functioning
muscle contractions
cell's genetic material

vitamers/provitamins

pre vitamins

Trabecular Bone

supports cortical bone structure
easily broken down to supply Ca, P, and FL
lose of this contributes of spine and hips

Osteoclasts

bone cells that breakdown the bone surface and release the mineral components into the blood

Osteoblasts

bone cells that rebuild new bone to replace broken down bones

Vitamin K RDA's

AL 120 mcg men
90 mcg for women

Vitamin K

found in leafy vegetables
50% made by bacteria in GI tract
animal milk has more than breast milk

Vitamin K Toxicity

Red blood cell lysis
Potential Brain Damage
Yellowing of the skin (liver malfunction)
Kernicerus

B Vitamins

act as part of coenzymes
metabolism of carbs, lipids, and amino acids

Vitamin B6

helps body make protein
helps cells divide
prevents anemia

Thiamin Deficiency alcohol

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome-alcohol abuse
-irritability
-apathy
-jerky eye
-loss of memory

Thiamin RDA's

1.2 mg men
1.1 mg women
higher if prego or lactating

Vitamin B2

Riboflavin
-found in milk, green vegetables, whole grain, enriched products, fortified cereals

Riboflavin Deficiency

Aribofalinosis,
-inflammation of eyes, lips, mouth, and tongue
-greasy skin
-cracking skin at corners of mouth
-confusion

Vitamin B1

Thiamin
-found in pork products, leafy greens, whole grain cereals, legumes

Thiamin Deficency

Beriberi
-loss of sensation in hands
-wet have calories in diet, has edema
-dry low calories

Vitamin B3

Niacin
-tryptophan can be converted to this
-found in Beef, Chicken, Fish, Peanuts, Legums, Whole and Enriched grains

Role of Niacin

involved in enzyme reacions

Niacin Deficiency

Pellagra
-Diarrhea
-Dermatitis
-Dementia
-Death

Niacin Toxicity

injure the liver
-vision loss
-peptic ulcers

RDA's Niacin

UL 35 mg
16 mg men
14 mg women

Folate

Folic Acid
found in uncooked vegetables, eggs, orange juice, legumes
milk enhances absorption

Folate RDA's

400 mcg
UL 1,000 mcg
600 mcg is prego

Folate Deficiency

anemia
diminished immunity
-abnormal digestive function
-cardiovascular event
-colon cancer
-cervical cancer
-prevents Neural Tube Defects

Roles of Folate

DNA synthesis
metabolism of amino acids

Folate Toxicity

mask b12 deficency
antagonistic of anitcancer drugs

Vitamin B12

Cyanocobalamin
-folate and fatty acid metabolism
-nerve function
-red blood cells mature

DRI of Vitamin B12

2.4 ug

Deficency of B12

damage to never sheaths
paralysis
malfunctioning of nerves and muscles

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