William Howard Taft
27th president of the U.S. 1909-1913; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
26th President of the United States, 26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy
naval hero of the Spanish-American War; his fleet defeated the Spanish at Manila Bay and gave the United States a tenuous claim to the Philippine Islands.
James G. Blaine
served as secretary of state in two administrations in the 1880's, led early efforts to expand american influence in latin america.
Dupuy de Lome
Spanish ambassador who said that Pres. McKinley was a weak leader in a letter and got fired.
(WMc) Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743), USA developed Jones Act and Tydings McDuffie Act
the secretary of state under Cleveland. attacked Britain for trying to get some of Venezuela's land. claimed it went against the Monroe Doctrine
Spanish policy of moving Cubans to detention camps so that they could not aid rebels
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Pan American Conference
this was an international organization that dealt with trade; organized by james blaine; created to encourage cooperation and trust with the manufacturers
Was the Secretary of State in 1899; dispatched the Open Door Notes to keep the countries that had spheres of influence in China from taking over China and closing the doors on trade between China and the U.S.
A rebellion before the Spanish American War when there were tensions between the Filippinos and the US
Benevolent assimilation 1898
McKinley and the U.S. were trying to assimilate the Philippines by expensively improving roads, sanitation, and public health. Caused much Filippino resistance
Open Door notes 1899
mesage sent by secretary of state John Hay to European countries to protect U.S. trading rights in China
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty 1881
treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to canal across Isthmus of Panama
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty 1901
An agreement in which the U.S would receive exclusive rights to construct and control a canal in Central America. It nullified the 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, thus allowing the Panama Canal to be built.
Hay-Banau-Varilla Treaty 1903
treaty granted the United States control over a canal zone ten miles across the Isthmus of Panama. In return, the US guaranteed the independence of Panama and agreed to pay Colombia a onetime fee of $10 million and an annual rental of $250000
Roosevelt Corollary 1904
Roosevelt's extension of the monroe doctrine, in which he declared that the united states had the right to exercise "police power" throughout the South and Central America
Portsmouth Conference 1905
The meeting between Japan, Russia, and the U.S. that ended the Russo-Japanese War. Agreements left both sidees unhappy
Great White Fleet 1907-1909
16 American battleships, painted white, sent around the world by Roosevelt to display American naval power
Gentlemen's Agreement 1907
Japan agreed to restrict emmigration of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
28th (1913-1921) American President during WWI - had 14 point plan - key figure in League of Nations- Established the federal reserve
Kaiser Wilhelm III
King of Prussia and Emperor of Germany whose political policies led his country into World War I. He was forced from power when Germany lost the war
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railroad Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months
The Sussex 1916
An unarmed French steamer attack by German submarines. Wilson demanded Germany to abandon its "unlawful" tactics.
medical boat used by US to secretly ship artillery to britain; sank by german torpeado, killing 128 Americans and starts tension btwn U.S. and central powers. Caused the US to enter WWI
Roosevelt's domestic platform during the 1912 election accepting the power of trusts and proposing a more powerful government to regulate them
31st president of the U.S from 1923-1933 leader of the US in the beginning of the great depression. He didn't want the gov involved in the peoples lives and thought that the people should express their individual rights.
Warren G. Harding
29th president (1921-1923) after World War I who promised to return the US to normalism
He headed the War Industries Board which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism.
Created by Wilson during WWI - Led by Herbert Hoover - set up ration system to save food for soldiers
belief that people in a territory should have the ability to choose their own government
agreement by a group of nations to defend the other in case of an attack on any member
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918, that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against US participation in World War I
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
Zimmerman note 1917
A note intercepted by the US, originally sent from Germany to Mexico saying that if Mexico can keep the US out of the Great War then Germany would help Mexico regain its territories taken from the US like New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.
Industrial Workers of the World
Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.
Fourteen Points 1918
Wilson's plan for world peace after WWI. called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Treaty of Versailles 1919
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
War Industries Board
Agency established in 1917 during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.
most important leaders at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.
These were Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass. Led by isolationists