The Skeleton: Bones and Joints

79 terms by dltn_petrysz 

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Skeleton

The inner framework made up of 206 bones of the body

Skeletal System

Bones and joints along with connective tissue

Bone Functions

Serve as a firm framework
Protect brain and spinal cord
Serve as levers, working with muscles to produce movement
Storehouse for calcium salts
Produce red blood cells (in the red marrow)

Medullary Cavity

Cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow

Bone Tissue

Osseous Tissue/Bone Tissue; they protect and support other body tissues and organs.

Compact Bone

The dense, hard layer of bone tissue

Haversian Canal

A channel containing nerves and blood vessels making up compact bone

Perforating Canals

Volkmann's canals/ contain larger blood vessels and nerves

Spongy Bone

Part of bone with many small pores or spaces (Cancellous Bone)

Bone Marrow

A soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells

Red Bone Marrow

Produces blood cells

Yellow marrow

Bone marrow that is yellow with fat

Periosteum

Outer most fibrous layer that supplies blood and nerves to the bone

Ossification

Process of bone formation, during which cartilage is replaced by bone

Endosteum

Vascular membrane that lines the inner surface of long bones

Osteoblasts

Bone-forming cells

Osteocytes

Living bone cells

Resorption

Breakdown of bone tissue

Epiphyseal Plates

Regions of cartilage near the ends of longs bones which are active growth regions in children

Bone Markings

Bulges, depressions, and holes that serve as sites pf attachment for muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Joint surfaces, and conduits for blood vessels and nerves

Condyle

A round bump on a bone where it forms a joint with another bone

Process

A large projection of the bone

Head

The rounded end of a bone that bits into a rounded cavity in another bone to form a joint

Crest

Narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent

Spine

Short projection of bone

Foramen

An opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass

Sinus

Any of various air-filled cavities especially in the bones of the skull

Fossa

Shallow, basinlike depression in a bone

Meatus

A natural body passageway

Axial Skeleton

The portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the head, neck, and trunk

Appendicular Skeleton

Forms the extremities and is composed of the shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg bones

Skull

The bony skeleton of the head of vertebrates

Frontal Bone

Forms the forehead

Frontal Sinuses

Cavities above the eyes

Parietal Bones

Bones are located on each side of the skull just behind the frontal bone.

Temporal Bones

Bone on the side of the head near the ears

Ethmoid Bone

Irregularly shaped bone located between the eye orbits

Sphenoid Bone

Butterfly-shaped bone at the base of the skull

Sella Turcica

Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland

Occipital Bone

A saucer-shaped membrane bone that forms the back of the skull

Foramen Magnum

The large opening at the base of the cranium through which the spinal cord passes

Suture

An immovable joint (especially between the bones of the skull)

Coronal Suture

Joins frontal and parietal bones

Sagittal Suture

Midline of the skull, connection of parietal cones

Lambdoid Suture

Suture that arches across the posterior surface of the skull

Mandible

The lower jawbone in vertebrates

Maxillary Sinus

On each side of nose below the eyes

Zygomatic Bones

Cheekbones

Nasal Bones

Form the bridge of the nose

Vomer

The thin, single, flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum

Palatine Bones

Forms the back of the hard palate and the lateral walls of the nasal cavity

Fontanels

Soft spot gaps between a baby's skull that slowly close up during the first 18 months of life

Vertebral Column

Backbone

Thorax

Chest

Cervical Vertebrae

First set of seven bones, forming the neck

Thoracic Vertebrae

Second set of 12 vertebrae; they articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine

Lumbar Vertebrae

Third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine

Sacral Vertebrae

Five vertebrae which are fused to form the sacrum in the pelvis

Coccygeal Vertebrae

Coccyx (tailbone)

Sternum

Breastbone

Manubrium

The bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum

Xiphoid Process

This structure is the most inferior of the sternebrae. It is used for a landmark for CPR.

True Ribs

Top 7 pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilage

False Ribs

Last 5 pairs of ribs; attach indirectly to sternum

Intercostal Spaces

Interval between the ribs, occupied by intercostal muscles, veins, arteries, and nerves.

Clavicle

The collarbone

Scapula

Shoulder Blade

Humerus

Bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow

Ulna

The inner and longer of the two bones of the human forearm

Radius

The outer and slightly shorter of the two bones of the human forearm

Trochlear Notch

A large notch in the Ulna.

Carpal Bones

Wrist bones

Phalanges

Fingers and Toes

Pelvic Bones

Ilium, ischium, pubis

Acetabulum

The cup-shaped hollow in the hipbone into which the head of the femur fits to form a ball-and-socket joint

Femur

Thighbone

Patella

Knee Cap

Tibia

Shin bone. On medial side of the leg. Bears most of the weight

Fibula

The outer and thinner of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set