The Church in the Middle Ages

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From Church History: Apostolic Times to Today textbook by Gloria Shahin with Joanna Dailey

Concordat of Worms

(1122), solved the question of lay investiture, the emperor invested bishops with temporal signs of office (scepter; only another churchman could invest a bishop with the spiritual signs of office, the ring and staff)

Dictates of the Pope

promulgated by Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085), these precepts asserted that no secular power had authority over the Church or over the authority of the Pope

Eastern Schism

the break between the Eastern and Western Church (finalized in 1054), mainly over questions of Church authority

Fourth Lateran Council

1215, called by Pope Innocent III, was a summons to spiritual reform; among things established: secrecy of the confessional, Real Presence, fixing the number of the sacraments at seven, enforcement of clerical celibacy

investiture controversy

dispute over who would control appointments of Church officials was the most significant conflict between ecclesial and secular powers in medieval Europe

Albigensians

heretical gruop that preached the inherent evil of material possessions, the evil of marriage, and the position that suicide was not an immoral act

Michael Cerularius

patriarch of Constantinople when the Great Schism occured between East and West in 1054; fiercely anti-Latin patriarch who opposed numerous practices of the Western Church

Photius

Patriarch of Constantinople; placed there by the emperor who dethroned Ignatius; Photius broke with Rome over the questions of filioque; was upset because the East was not included in the dialogue about making changes

Waldensians

radical reformist group founded by Peter Waldo that attacked the hierarchical nature of the Church and its sacramental and priestly system; preached that the only true Christian was one who vowed total poverty

St. Leo IX

first reformer Pope; clashed with the Patriarch of Constantinople, which led to the Eastern Schism

St. Gregory VII

Hildebrand, monk from the Cluny monastery; inaugurated reforms, mandated celibacy, worked to end investiture, and issued the Dictates of the Pope, claiming absolute spiritual and temporal power

Pope Innocent III

brilliant canon lawyer who believed that Christ granted both spiritual and secular leadership to the pope; used spiritual and political weapons to help assert Church power; one of history's most effective and powerful popes; helped the Church emerge from the Dark Ages and feudalism; known for calling the Fourth Crusade and the Fourth Lateran Council

St. Clare of Assisi

protege of St. Francis of Assisi; founded the order the Poor Clares for women, which is modeled on St. Francis's Rule; often images of her include her holding a monstrance containing the Blessed Sacrament because she carried it to the entrance of the monastery where Saracen invaders were about to attack and their boldness had been changed to fear and they quickly turned around

St. Dominic Guzman

founder of the Friars Preachers, popularly called the Dominicans or Order of Preachers (OP); Spanish priest who emphasized the importance of theological study in the service of teaching, believing that an educated friar would be of the greatest service to the Church, able to illustrate the truth of the Gospels and the wisdom of the Church's Tradition

St. Francis of Assisi

founded order of Friars Minor; his simplicity and beautiful understanding of the Christian way of life served to call the Church back to Gospel values

Christendom

the notion of the Christian world as a sort of social and political polity; a vision of a Christian government devoted to the enforcement of Christian values, whose institutions are suffused with Christian piety

filioque controversy

means "and [from] the son" in Latin; a heavily disputed part of the Nicene Creed that forms a divisive difference between the Eastern and Western Church; in the East, the line in question reads "We believe in the Holy Spirit...who proceeds from the Father"; the West added "filioque," so the line reads "We believe in the Holy Spirit...who proceeds from the Father and the Son"

interdict

an injunction forbidding the celebration of the sacraments; "to prohibit"

lay investiture

the practice whereby secular leaders appointed bishops in their domains, usurping the right of the Pope to choose them

mendicant

a religious follower, who relies only on begging to survive or charity for support; served God's people by witnessing to simple Gospel values; lived a life of poverty, preaching in towns and begging for food and shelter

nepotism

passing on benefits or lands to one's children or relatives

Medieval Inquisition

program of the Church, in collaboration with secular authorities, to judge the guilt of suspected heretics with the goal of getting them to repent; sometimes called the Papal Inquisition; although it is remembered as a vicious hunt for anyone in opposition to the Catholic orthodoxy, the reality is that most sentences were "canonical" penances, such as fasting, making pilgrimages, attending Mass more frequently, or wearing distinctive clothing

simony

the buying and selling of spiritual things, for example, Church offices

ecumenism

spirit of love and understanding that seeks to achieve unity among Christians and the unity of all people everywhere

Crusades

organized expeditions to free the Holy Land; defense of the faith; many were spiritual and mlitary failures and strayed from their original intentions

First Crusade

goal was to gain control of Jerusalem from the Turks who had been persecuting Christians and preventing them from making pilgrimages; mix of gains and losses both moral and military

Dominicans

(Order of Preachers) mendicant order founded by St. Dominic to combat heresies, ie. Albigensianism; modeled rule on St. Augustine's rule and prized learning as an effective means to defend the faith; traveled through the countryside to teach and preach against heresies; instrumental with the court of the Inquisition; among the greatest intellectuals of the period

Franciscans

(Order of Friars Minor); first mendicant order; unintentionally founded by St. Francis of Assisi ;central theme was the imitation of Christ and of his poverty; motto is "My God, my all"

Poor Clares

mendicant order founded by St. Clare of Assisi to live a contemplative life

iconoclasm

"image breaking"

iconoclast controversy

Byzantine Emperor Leo III's condemnation of the veneration of sacred images. He believed that venerating images was equivalent to idolatry and ordered their destruction and then attempted to impose his policy on the worldwide Church

condemnation of Canon 28

Pope Leo the Great condemned the canon that gave the Church of Constantinople jurisdiction over all the terriotories of the Byzantine Empire on the grounds that Constantinople was the "New Rome"; Pope Leo could not accept this surrendering of Church authority to Constantinople because the Pope, as the successor to Peter, was the legitimate source of authority

Second Council of Nicaea

supported Pope Leo's view of venerating icons as an important means of educating the largely illiterate laity in the sacred mysteries of the faith; these visual images serve as an aid in worshipping the one true God

Cluny

monastery that became a fountainhead of reform activity in the Church because it was free of the influence and control by corrupt clergy and nobility and because of its adherence to the Benedictine Rule and stressing a Christian lifestyle of discipleship, sacrifice and generosity

conciliar movement

a reform movement that emerged in the Church in the 14th century that held that final authority in spiritual matters rested with church councils, not with the Pope; this movement emerged in response to the Avignon Papacy

friars

members of religious orders of men who serve the Church through teaching or preaching

Great Western Schism

a split within the Church that lasted from 1378-1417, when there were two or three claimants to the papacy at once; also called the Papal Schism; caused great confusion for the faithful Christians and political maneuvering as governments took sides along political lines

indulgence

means by which the Church takes away the punishment that a person would received in Purgatory

mystic

person who regularly has an intense experience of the presence and power of God, resulting in a deep sense of union with him

scholasticism

way of thinking, teaching, and writing emphasizes dialectical reasoning whereby two or more people who hold different points of view about a subject arrive at the truth through reasoned arguments in dialogue; characteristic of the medieval universities of Europe from about 1100 to 1500; although concerned with all of scientific learning, it is most closely identified with knowledge about God based in the principle that faith and reason can be reconciled

Spanish Inquisition

inquisition process established in the late fifteenth century by the Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella; to bolster their authority, the king and queen sought to stamp out any possible opposition to their leadership and to unite all of Spain, through conformity to Catholicism; targeted recent converts to the faith, particularly Jews and Muslims, because their conversions were suspected of being feigned, rather than a true acceptance of the faith

Unam Sanctum

issued by Pope Boniface VIII that asserted that Popes were supreme over kings in both spiritual and temporal affairs

Babylonian Captivity of the Church

the Avignon papacy in which the papacy was in a sort of exile from the see of Peter, Rome, for 68 years

Bridget of Sweden

known for having many visions; called for Pope Gregory XI to leave Avignon and return to Rome; did not live to see her dream realized

Catherine of Siena

Doctor of the Church; prolific letter write; was extremely instrumental in getting Gregory XI to return to Rome; condemned the greed, materialism, and pride of the papal court and urged the pope to return to Rome to serve as shepherd to his flock; had a deep respect for the papacy and wanted the men occupying the office to be worthy of the calling

Council of Constance

formally convoked by Pope Gregory II (from Rome), who then abdicated. Its work deposed the two remaining Popes and elected Pope Martin V, ending the Western Schism

Gregory XI

last of the Avignon Popes who was urged by St. Bridget and Catherine of Siena to return to Rome

Pope Boniface VIII

start of the decline of the power of the papacy; two powerful kings and nationalism created great challenges for his papacy; issued two powerful papal bulls; was arrested by the King of France and later died

Pope Clement V

weak pope dominated by the French king; created ten cardinals, nine of which were French; moved the Church's headquarters from Rome to Avignon

St. Thomas Aquinas

known as the "Dumb Ox"; considered to be very influential in the development of the Church's doctrine, mostly due to his masterpiece work, Summa Theologica in which he follows the method of
medieval disputation to show the logical relationship between faith and reason and to prove the existence of God; taught that there are some things (such as the mystery of the Incarnation) that
human reason cannot explain, and which must be accepted by faith

Saint Anselm

promoted "faith seeking understanding"; encouraged Christians to ask questions and to inquire into the truths of Scripture

Second Crusade

was launched after the Muslims regained some territories that had been captured by the Christians in the First Crusade; it was disastrous; The Christians lost Jerusalem again, as well as all the other territories gained in the First Crusade.

Third Crusade

jointly launched by the kings of England (Richard the Lion-Hearted), France (Philip II),and Germany Frederick Barbarossa); failed to regain Jerusalem, but it did secure the right for Christians to visit the city

Carthusians

relied on the Rule of Saint Benedict and placed greater emphasis on sacrifice and poverty; lived a life of austerity, in which monks lived a hermitic life, meeting in community only on feast days

Cistercians

relied on the Rule of St. Benedict and stressed solitude, along with manual labor and poverty; with a focus on work and discipline, their abbeys became leaders in technological knowledge -- about agricultural techniques, metal working, and textiles, for example -- and were important contributors to France's economy

St. Bernard

Cistercian monk who founded a monastery in Clairvaux, outside of Paris; he was a prominent theologian and mystic; through his influence the order attracted a rapidly growing number of followers

University of Bologna

the first university to be chartered, in 1088

inquisitors

chosen mainly from the Dominican Order and the Franciscan Order, because they were well educated, devoted to the Pope, and free from alliances with secular leaders; organized into a tribunal (panel of three) were both investigators and judges

auto da fe

a ceremony at which the condemned were sentence during the Spanish Inquisition

Pope Sixtus IV

initially authorized the Spanish Inquisition; changed his position and made objections to the Church courts being used to persecute Jews

conversos

Jewish and Muslim converts to the Catholic faith; nearly three thousand were executed during the Spanish Inquisition

Aristotle

early work was a stepping stone of Medieval scholastics; studied most fields of human knowledge detailed observations and conclusions cogently explained many phenomena; from Christian point of view, he could not explain everything; did not have the benefit of divine revelation

Peter Abelard

Helped develop the scholastic method; influential work was called Sic et Non; famous for his explorations of Aristotle's philosophy and perfected the technique of theological investigation with a method in which the questio (question) led to interrogation (an investigation), followed by disputatio (argument and final resolution)

St. Albert the Great

From Germany; Doctor of the Church; brilliant scholastic thinker and teacher; known as the "teacher of everything there is to know"; taught Thomas Aquinas, who became his greatest pupil; his writings are remarkable for their exact scientific knowledge convinced that all creation spoke of God and that the tiniest piece of scientific knowledge told us something about Him

Pope Leo XIII

Gave special prominence to Thomas's thought (Thomism); Known for issuing Rerum Novarum which means "Of New Things" -"On the Condition of Worker" and was the charter document of Catholic Social Teaching issued in 1891; opened the Vatican Library for historical research
his diplomatic skills helped the Church become less defensive and more willing to dialogue in the modern age

Need for First Mover

Aquinas' way/proof that addresses the concept that motion is nothing else than the reduction of something from potentiality to actuality

Need for First Cause

Aquinas' way/proof that says it is impossible for a thing to bring itself into existence therefore something or someone eternal formed everything; this eternal being is God

Creation of Matter

Aquinas' way/proof that says all life is dependent on someone or something else for survival which points to a necessity of a being who depends on nothing or no one else

Need for a Perfect Model

Aquinas' way/proof that addresses the concept that there is something which is truest, something best, something noblest, and consequently, something which is most being, for those things that are greatest truth are greatest in being, therefore there must be something that is the Ultimate Ideal of each of these things, Christians call this Ultimate Ideal God.

Need for Order

Aquinas' way/proof that addresses the fact that the whole Universe is awesome, incredibly complicated and organized, therefore, an Infinite Intelligence must have put it all together

Summa Theologica

21 volume theological masterpiece written by Thomas Aquinas in which he attempts to explore and summarize all aspects of Christian faith in an integrated, logical way

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