group of people within the state who have the ultimate authority to act on behalf of the state
correspondence between the state and the nation is particularly loose in where? and why?
Africa and Asia; boundaries are not clearly drawn, left over from the colonial era
what is the theory of the autonomous state?
the state often participates autonomously in political conflict and decision making
why are central banks set up? and what do they do?
set up by government to handle transactions, coordinate private banks, and control interest rates by amount of currency in economy
what are Benedict Arnold's ideas of nationalism?
nationalism is closer to a religious identity than it is to an ideology like conservatism; it reaches deep into psyches, as people are willing to die for their country
how has the state been challenged from below?
explosive growth of ethnic and separatist movements
how has the state been challenged from above?
world leaders are groping for structures that would widen the state; reduce state function; this has occurred in economic areas specifically, also in militant Islam
what are poorer nations often burdened with?
gender inequalities of incomes
according to Shively, what are the 2 main things by which governments are judged?
distribution of benefits and if the economy grows steadily and rapidly
what is the main indicator of economic growth?
change in GDP
where has the "hollowing out" of the state been most pronounced?
what is the democratic deficit?
economies of EU countries are controlled by officials who never have to face voters
what ideology did the US constitution reflect?
what is civil society?
the part of society that is organized and active but is neither controlled by the government nor focused on private concerns such as family or economic activity
what are some examples of a public good?
national defense, medical research, space program, public health program
what is the EU (European Union)?
an association of 25 western European states that coordinate economic policy and other policies with a government structure that has limited but increasing power over its states
what type of government did Nigeria have from 1983-1999?
what can challenges to the state be attributed to?
state may have been less valuable in meeting society's needs; scale of industries in different states; states are weakened military structures when compared to past states
define politics as found in the text
the making of common decisions for a group of people through the use of power by some members of the group over other members
what is an example of implicit power?
King Henry II of England was involved in a series of disputes with the Archbishop of Canterbury (Thomas a Becket) and one day the king exclaimed "Will no one rid me of this man?!" which four of his knights overheard and they went and killed Becket
what are 2 ways of looking at the making of collective policies?
power and public choice
how can power be exercised?
coercion, persuasion, or the construction of incentives
what is manifest power?
power based on observable action by A that causes B to do what A wants
what are empirical theories?
theories describing how things work in the world we observe
what is the "third face of power"?
when issues don't get brought up
what are interpretivist political scientists?
political scientists who deal with historical and philosophical aspects of politics and seek detailed, nonnumerical information on a small number of cases
describe elections in communist countries like the USSR
high voter turnout, makes people feel involved, like they actually have a say
what is the special meaning of the word "state" in political science?
remember: politics is based on some form of power an its source can be highly varied
remember: politics is based on some form of power an its source can be highly varied
what is construction of incentives?
when the alternative is made so unattractive that only one reasonable option remains
what are behavioralist political scientists?
look for broad patterns across cases and use statistical analysis of numerical information, looking for simple descriptions of basic processes
what is the average amount a citizen makes per year?
per capita income; per capita GDP, per capita GNP
why did import substitution industrialization in Ghana fail?
taxed farmers for cheaper city food and industrial projects which failed; farmers with no additional earnings to improve
what is rent/rent seeking?
transfer of funds/resources that doesn't increase a society's productivity
what is political economy?
how the state and economy interact/ how the state's government affects the economy
what is inflation?
general rise in prices, $ worth less
why was South Korea more successful than Ghana in promoting economic growth?
very autonomous state (homogeneous population), security threat from North Korea (unifier), Confucian political culture (leaders/followers in harmony), authoritarian government was nimble and flexible (1973 OPEC Crisis)
what is import-substitution?
policy of underdeveloped economies (1950-70s): high tariffs to discourage imports of manufactured goods, encourage new factories within their state with no competition (prosperize and energize economy); all of which results in owners of new factories charging high prices for nappy goods
what has been the level of inflation in most modern economies?
what is the relationship between interest rates and unemployment in the short run?
government tries to reduce inflation by increasing interest rates, resulting in less money borrowed and economic activity declines, producing more unemployed
describe the Marxist theory of the state
the state controls the workers
define a "nation"
group of people bound together by culture, especially language
responsibility for the conduct of its own affairs
what are normative theories?
involve making a judgement about the world, not describing how it works; address the question "what should X do?"
both American Liberalism and American Conservatism are both versions of __________
organized sets of ideas
describe American ideologies
loosely organized, representing marriages of political convenience
the ideology that sees the highest good of a society as the ability of its members to develop their individual capacities to the fullest extent
which ideologies flourished in Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries?
liberalism, conservatism, and socialism
where was liberalism strongest during the 19th century?
Britain and its former colonies
how does conservatism view power?
should be accepted, welcomed, and used responsibly
what does conservatism emphasize?
the importance of the maintenance of an ordered community and common values
who was one of the greatest liberal thinkers?
John Stuart Mill
what do socialist see society as consisting of?
what did conservatism develop as a response to?
who was the most influential socialist writer?
who does fascism appeal to?
those who felt left out of the modern age
what has American Liberalism traditionally emphasized?
support for the interests of minorities, women, and gays; concerns for economic equality; a fairly radical defense of freedom of expression
what has American Conservatism traditionally emphasized?
the maintenance of an efficient, minimally regulated economy
what has happened with the intensity of ideological debate in the US?
strengthened over the past few decades
who was the key philosopher of conservative ideology?
what was the dominate political system of Spain, Germany, and Italy in the 1930's?
who wrote the textbook?
How does Shively define power?
the ability of one person to cause another to do what the first wishes by whatever means
what is authority?
power based on a general agreement that the holder of the power has the right to issue certain commands and that those commands should be obeyed
politics is the making of collective decisions through the use of what?
why did inflation fall in most countries during the late 1990's?
a number of countries reduced their government's budget deficits, commodities such as oil remained reasonably cheap, end of the Cold War made world trade more free and open resulting in worldwide competition (hard to raise prices)
why does political science focus on the state?
the state is an important aspect to human lives
what responsibilities have states undertaken in recent decades?
maintaining stability of economy and guarantee employment
what are the 2 major and interconnected themes of the Shively text?
power and choice
why was the modern state developed according to Marx?
to control the lower class
the development of the modern state is closely related to what?
industry and complicated commercial ties
why is America largely unfamiliar with conservatism?
our country was founded by liberals so our conservatism is different from countries that have been along longer (and therefore founded by hardcore conservatives) like GB
what is the region with the lowest level of government corruption?
what is the impact of independent central banks on inflation rates?
it controls the interest rates by amount of currency in the economy
why does rent seeking sometimes hurt the economy?
it channels transfers of money into the pockets of the dominant coalition's supporters, rather than into what would be the most efficient economic use of the money
what are 2 factors which improve unemployment, inflation, & economic growth simultaneously?
educated citizenry, technology
what is political theory?
subfield of political science history about ideas and critical discussion of political values
what are 2 things governments can do to create greater equality?
special aids for the poor and systems of progressive taxation