Systematic knowledge gained by the use of reason based on observation
Steps of a Scientific Method of Investigation
Observe a problem, state a hypothesis, design and perform an experiment, form conclusions, replicate the work
Group that is exposed to the experimental (independent) variable
Group that is not exposed to the experimental (independent) variable
Experimental variable, what you test on the experimental group to see if makes a difference
A reasonable explanation supported by observation and/or research
An EXPLANATION that has survived repeated testing
A concise statement that DESCRIBES a large body of observations
New properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases (p. 4)
The total of all the environments on earth that support life (p. 2)
Consists of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact (p. 2)
The entire array of organisms inhabiting an ecosystem (p. 2)
An interacting group of individuals of one species (p. 2)
An individual living thing (p. 2)
Consists of several organs that work together in performing a specific function (p. 2)
A structure consisting of several tissues adapted as a group to perform specific functions (p. 2)
A cooperative unit of many similar cells that perform a specific function within a multicellular organism (p. 2)
A unit of living matter separated from its environment by a boundary called a membrane (p. 2)
A structure that performs a specific function in a cell (p. 2)
An organism that makes organic food molecules through photosynthesis (p. 3)
An organism that obtains its food by eating plants or by eating animals that have eaten plants (p. 3)
An organism that derives its energy from organic wastes and dead organisms (p. 3)
Characteristics of Life
Order, Regulation, Growth and Development, Energy Utilization, Response to the Environment, Reproduction, Evolution (p. 5)
A structure that performs a specific function in a cell.
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles
A type of cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles
An idea is said to be this when there is some way to check its validity
An idea is said to be this when there is some observation or experiment that COULD show that it is not true
A taxonomic category above the kingdom level
The broad taxonomic category above phylum or division and below domain
The branch of biology concerned with identifying, naming, and classifying species
A group whose members possess similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed
Anything that occupies space and has mass (p. 18).
A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means (p. 18).
A substance containing two or more elements or ingredients in a fixed ratio (p. 19).
The smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element (p. 20).
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom; has a mass of 1 atomic mass unit (p. 20).
A negatively charged subatomic particle found in the space around the nucleus (p. 20).
A subatomic particle that has the same mass as a proton but no electric charge (p. 20).
The atom's central core; consists of protons, and usually neutrons as well (p. 20).
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom (p. 20).
The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom (p. 20).
Forms of a single element that differ in atomic mass due to a different number of neutrons in the nucleus (p. 20).
Isotope in which the nucleus decays spontaneously over time, giving off radiation in the form of matter and energy (p. 20).
An energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom (p. 22).
An attraction between two atoms resulting from the sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges (p. 22).
Two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond (p. 22).
A covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms (p. 23).
An atom's attraction for its electrons, including shared electrons (p. 234).
nonpolar covalent bond
Electrons are shared equally (p. 24).
Results from the attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negative atom of another molecule (p. 24).
The amount of energy associated with the movement of atoms and molecules in a body of matter (p. 25).
Measures the intensity of heat; a measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules (p. 25).
A compound that donates hydrogen ions to solutions (p. 26).
A compound that accepts hydrogen ions and removes them from solution; may alternatively be defined as a compound that donates hydroxide ions (OH-) to solutions (p. 27).
A range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic); Each unit represents a ten fold change in the concentration of H+ in solution (p. 27).
Substances that resist changes in pH by accepting H+ when it is in excess and donating H+ when it is depleted (p. 27).
A process leading to changes in the composition of matter through the making or breaking of chemical bonds (p. 29).
The starting materials in a chemical reaction (p. 29).
A chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction (p. 29).
An atom or molecule with an electrical charge resulting from a gain or loss of one or more electrons (p. 22).
A synonym for an ionic compound (p. 23).
polar covalent bond
Unequal sharing of electrons; makes the atom to which electrons are pulled more strongly partially negative and the other atom slightly positive (p. 24).
A molecule with an unequal distribution of charges (p. 24).
The tendency of molecules to stick together (p. 25).
A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid (p. 25).
A liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of two or more substances (p. 26).
The dissolving agent in a solution (p. 26).
A substance that is dissolved in a solution (p. 26).
A solution in which water is the solvent (p. 26).
Molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures.
"Giant molecules" made from thousands or even hundreds of thousands of smaller molecules.
Process by which smaller units--monomers--are joined together to form larger compounds--polymers.
The name for the smaller units that can be joined together to form a polymer.
Formed by joining together smaller units called monomers.
A covalently bonded compound that contains carbon; the four groups of these found in living things are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
A compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in a ratio of 1 carbon to 2 hydrogen to 1 oxygen; used by living things for energy and structural purposes.
Single sugar; includes glucose, fructose, and galactose.
Large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides.
A polysaccharide used by animals to store excess sugar; often referred to as "animal starch".
A polysaccharide used by plants to store excess sugar.
A tough, flexible polysaccharide that gives plants much of their strength and rigidity.
Double sugar; includes sucrose (table sugar), maltose, and lactose.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule; monosaccharides can be joined this way to produce disaccharides or polysaccharides.
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water; polysaccharides can be broken into monosaccharides by this method.
A disaccharide made of glucose + fructose.
A disaccharide made of glucose + glucose.
A disaccharide made of glucose + galactose.
The number of valence electrons in a carbon atom; carbon's ability to form long chains is due to its ability to bond to other carbon atoms and to form this number of covalent bonds.
The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in a carbohydrate; the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen that is found in water--which is why "hydrate" is an appropriate part of the name "carbohydrate."
Macromolecules made mainly from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes; used for long-term storage of energy and carbon, and for building structural parts of cell membranes; fatty acids and glycerol make up the simple fats most common in our diets (p. 46).
Lipids containing a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid chains; chemical form in which most fats exist in food and in the body.
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms; tend to be oily liquids at room temperature; found in plants.
a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms; tend to be solid at room temperature; found in animals.
A lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids; consists of a hydrophilic polar head and two non-polar hydrophobic tails; forms cell membranes.
Many of this type of lipid serve as chemical messengers or as parts of the cell membrane; examples include cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen.
A soft yellow wax secreted by glands in the ear canal; ear wax; an example of wax--a type of lipid.
Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth, repair, and to make up enzymes; a polymer made of amino acids.
Compounds with an amino group (-NH₂) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end; the monomers that make up a protein.
A protein that is used as a catalyst (speeds up a chemical reaction).
A covalent bond between the acid group of one molecule and the amino group of another.
The sequence of amino acids in a protein chain.
The twisting or folding of the amino acids within a protein chain.
The folding of the protein chain itself; the 3 dimensional folded structure of a protein.
The specific arrangement of a protein consisting of more than one chain.
A covalent bond that links two monosaccharides together.
The chemical process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids to reduce the number of double bonds, making the fats more solid (saturated); produces trans-fatty acids.
A change in the shape of a protein (such as an enzyme) that can be caused by changes in temperature or pH (among other things).
Polymers assembled from individual nucleotides; used to store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information; the two kinds of nucleic acids are ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Monomer that makes up nucleic acids; consists of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Forms the genes; in eukaryotic cells it is found in the cell nucleus and mitochondria; codes for proteins.
Works with DNA to carry out instructions of the genetic code; found in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and ribosomes.
Nitrogen base that pairs with thymine.
Nitrogen base that pairs with adenine.
Nitrogen base that pairs with guanine.
Nitrogen base that pairs with cystosine.
Nitrogen base that pairs with adenine in RNA.
Carries the genetic code for a protein from the nucleus to the ribosomes where the proteins are assembled.
Each half of an original DNA molecule serves as a templete for a new strand, and the two new DNA molecules each have one old and one new strand.
A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being "used up" in the reaction.
A biological catalyst; specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions.
The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start.
The site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate.
The substance that an enzyme acts upon.
Metal ions or organic compounds that help enzymes.
Substances that block an enzyme's activity.
An inhibitor that takes the place of a substrate in the active site.
An inhibitor that alters an enzyme's function by changing its shape.
A process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals.
Term used to describe a reaction that will occur without additional energy.
Element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction.
A chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction.
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water.
A change in the shape of a protein (such as an enzyme) that can be caused by changes in temperature or pH (among other things).
law of conservation of mass
States that atoms are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.
A solution that can be used as a starch indicator. Turns from amber color to dark purple/black in the presence of starch.
The model for enzymes that states when a substrate binds to an enzyme, the active site changes shape--like a clasping hand shake.
Lock and key
Old model where the enzyme and substrate fit perfectly- enzyme rigid and unchanged; used to explain enzyme specificity.
Rhythmic waves of smooth muscle contraction in the walls of the digestive tract that moves food through the digestive tract (p. 433).
A term used to describe food after it has been chewed and mixed with saliva (p. 434).
The process of chewing.
A semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach into the small intestine (p. 437).
What occurs when you don't produe enough mucus and the gastric juice begins to digest the wall of the stomach (p. 437).
Emulsifies fat making them more susceptible to attack by digestive enzymes (p. 438).
The organ that produces bile (p. 438).
Stores bile until it is needed in the small intestine (p. 438).
Folds in the stomach lining that help with mechanical digestion.
Reclaims water and compacts the feces (p. 440).
Begins the chemical digestion of proteins in the stomach (p. 436).
An enzyme that breaks fat molecules down into fatty acids and glycerol (p. 439).
Enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates (p. 434 and p. 438).
All four types of macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and fats) are digested in this organ (p. 438).
This organ produces a a mixture of digestive enzymes and alkaline solution rich in bicarbonate. Digestive enzymes produced here include: trypsin, nuclease, amylase, lipase, etc. (p. 438).