Chapter 10: Cardiovascular, Immune, Lymphatic Systems and Blood

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Structures of the Cardiovascular System, Blood, Lymphatic System, (Combining form, Prefix/Suffix, Disease and Disorders)

Heart

Muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist, located behind the sternum and between the lungs.
Circulates blood throughout the body.
Two upper chambers, the right and left atrium, and two lower chambers, the right and left ventricle.

Atrial septum

separates the atria

Ventricular septum

separates the ventricles

Atrioventricular valves

consists of the tricuspid and mitral valves

Semilunar valves

located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and between the left ventricle and the aorta.

Pericardium

Two-layer sac surrounding the heart, consisting of an external fibrous and an internal serous layer.

Serous layer

Secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart.

Three layers of the heart

epicardium
myocardium
endocardium

Epicardium

covers the heart

Myocardium

middle, thick, muscular layer

Endocardium

inner lining of the heart

Blood Vessels

tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body

Arteries

blood vessels that cary blood away form the heart

Pulmonary Artery

Carries carbon dioxide and other waste products from the heart to the lungs.

Arterioles

smallest arteries

Aorta

largest artery in the body

Veins

Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.

Venules

smallest veins

Venae Cavae

largest veins in the body

Capillaries

Microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules.

Blood

Composed of plasma and formed elements, such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes.

Plasma

Clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended.

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells that carry oxygen (Develops in bone marrow)

Leukocytes

White blood cells that combat infection and respond to inflammation. (5 types)

Platelets (throbocytes)

One of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for aiding in the clotting process.

Serum

Clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that remains after a clot has formed.

Lymph

Transparent, colorless, tissue fluid that, on entering the lymphatic system.

Lymphocytes and monocytes

Flow in a one-way direction to the heart.

Lymphatic vessels

Similar to veins.
Transport lymph from body tissues to the chest, where it enters the cardiovascular system. Provide a one-way flow for lymph where lymph enters through veins into the circulatory system.

Lymph nodes

Small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue.
Filter lymph to keep substances such as bacteria and other foreign agents from entering the blood.
Produce lymphocytes

Spleen

located in the left side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and the diaphragm.

Thymus gland

One of the primary lymphatic organs, located anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the sternum between the lungs.

Splen/o

spleen

thym/o

thymus gland

valv/o, valvul/o

valve

ventricul/o

ventricle

ather/o

yellowish, fatty plaque

ech/o

sound

electr/o

electricity, electrical activity

isch/o

deficiency, blockage

therm/o

heat

thromb/o

clot

brady-

slow

-ac

pertaining to

-apheresis

removal

-graph

instrument used to record; record

-penia

abnormal reduction in number

-poiesis

formation

-sclerosis

hardening

angioma

tumor composed of blood vessels

angiostenosis

narrowing of a blood vessel

aortic stenosis

narrowing, pertaining to aorta (narrowing of the aortic valve)

arteriosclerosis

hardening of the arteries.

atherosclerosis

hardening of fatty plaque (deposited on the arterial wall)

bradycardia

condition of a slow heart (rate less than 60 beats per minute)

cardiomegaly

enlargement of the heart

cardiomyopathy

disease of the heart muscle

endocarditis

inflammation of the inner (lining) of the heart (particularly heart valves) deficiency of blood (flow)

ischemia

deficiency of blood (flow)

myocarditis

inflammation of the muscle of the heart.

pericarditis

inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart

phlebitis

inflammation of a vein

polyarteritis

inflammation of many arteries.

tachycardia

condition of a rapid heart (rate of more than 100 beats per minute)

thrombophlebitis

inflammation of a vein associated with a clot

valvulitis

inflammation of a valve (of the heart)

hematoma

tumor of blood (collection of blood resulting from a broken blod vessel)

multiple myeloma

tumors of the bone marrow

pancytopenia

abnormal reduction of all (blood) cells

thrombosis

abnormal condition of a (blood) clot

thrombus

(blood) clot (attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein)

lymphadenitis

inflammation of the lymph nodes

lymphadenopathy

disease of the lymph nodes (characterized by abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes associated with an infection or malignancy)

lymphoma

tumor of lymphatic tissue (malignant)

splenomegaly

enlargement of the spleen

thymoma

tumor of the thymus gland

acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction

aneurysm

ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall

angina pectoris

chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle.

arrhythmia

any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern

atrial fibrillation (AFib)

a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in the atria. The atria quiver instead of contracting, causing irregular ventricular response and the ejection of a reduced amount of blood.

cardiac arrest

sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

cardiac tamponade

acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity

coarctation of the aorta

congenital cardiac condition characterized by a narrowing of the aorta.

congenital heart disease

heart abnormality present at birth

congestive heart failure (CHF)

inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen

coronary artery disease (CAD)

a condition that reduces the flow of blood thought the coronary arteries to the myocardium, denying the myocardial tissue of sufficient oxygen and nutrients to function fully; most often caused by coronary atherosclerosis.

coronary occulsion

obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from atherosclerosis. Coronary occlusion can lead to acute myocardial infarction.

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

condition of thrombus in a deep ein of the body. Most often occurs in the lower extremities.

hypertensive heart disease (HHD)

disorder of the heart caused by persistent high blood pressure.

intermittent claudication

pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in peripheral arterial disease.

mitral valve stenosis

a narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever

myocardial infraction (MI)

death (necrosis) of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (heart attack)

peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

disease of the arteries in the arm and legs, resulting in narrowing or complete obstruction of the artery.

rheumatic heart disease

damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever

varicose veins

distended or tortuous veins usually found in the lower extremities

anemia

reduction in the number of red blood cells.
Caused by blood loss or decrease in the production or increase in the destruction of red blood cells.

embolus

blood clot or foreign material, such as air or fat, that enters the bloodstream and moves until it lodges at another point in the circulation.

hemophilia

inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII

leukemia

malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow

sepsis

a condition in which pathogenic microorganisms, usually bacteria, enter the bloodstream, causing a systemic inflammatory response to the infection

Hodgkin disease

malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually beginning in the cervical nodes

infectious mononucleosis

an acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, and fever. The disease affects mostly young people and is usually transmitted by saliva

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