Huma 101 Final

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Aachen

Carolingian capital that Charlemagne built (distinct from classic Franksh capital, Paris)

Baghdad

final location of Islamic caliphate

Carthage

Augustine went to University here

Cluny (in Duch of Aquitaine)

monastery that brought great reforms at end of 10th, beginning of 11th century; founding abbot - Berno

Constantinople

where Constantine built his new Rome; 4th Crusade

Geneva

Calvin is from here; before Calvin - Farel

Jerusalem

captured by Western troops in 1st Crusade; held for 100 years

Mecca

Muhammad's hegira is from here; birth place; most holy city in Islam

Medina

Muhammad; hegira to here; gained first substantial following here

Milan

Constantine wrote the Edict of _____ (makes Christianity legal and favored); Bishop Ambrose from here

Milvian Bridge

Constantine's victory after his vision; right outside of Rome

Tours

Battle; Charles Martel drives back the Muslims from Spain

Wittenberg

Reformation begins; Luther; 95 Theses

Worms

(associated with both Investiture Conflict and Luther); where Luther was condemned by emperor; where investiture conflict was compromised

Zurich

Zwingli

Council of Nicea

______n Creed; Trinitarian conflict: "of one essence"; Arianism condemned

Council of Constantinople

closes Trinitarian conflict; final version of Nicene Creed; statement on the Holy Spirit

Council of Ephesus

Christological conflicts; Nestorianism condemned

Council of Chalcedon

defines what is meant in fuller detail what the creed means when it talks about Christ

Coucil of Clermont

1st Crusade is called

Lateran IV Council

most important medieval council; defines number of sacraments; transubstantiation and sacrifice: Eucharist; sets forth basic piety of Middle Ages

Council of Constance

ends Papal Schism

Lateran V Council

church needs reform in head and in numbers

Council of Trent

reformatory council of Roman Catholic Church that happened mid-point Reformation

Augustinian

Luther's order

Benedictine

the oldest order; stood by itself in the West for c. 500 years

Dominican

one of first begging orders; mendicant orders; did not cloister; focused on academic, apologetic (Thomas Aquinas) and preaching to nobility

Franciscan

one of first begging orders; mendicant orders; did not cloister; focused on poor

Jesuit

the youngest order; a Reformation order

Pope Gregory I

helped bring some level of stability in midst of chaos and confusion; helped to continue idea of pope of having primacy of jurisdiction; having a final court of appeals in West

Pope Gregory VII

investiture conflict

Pope Innocent III

most powerful of all Medieval popes

Pope Julius II

Lateran V; did not want to call it; wanted to expand papal states (warrior pope)

Pope Leo I

letter used as part of definition of Chalcedon; a tome

Pope Leo III

pope who crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor

Pope Martin V

pope at end of papal schism

Pope Paul V

the strongest anti-Reformation pope

Pope Urban II

calling of 1st Crusade

Pope Zachary

association with Pepin of Franks on who should be king

Basilica

primary way that the Romans constructed their imperial buildings; style was taken over at that time

"mystery"

not something unknown; only known when it is revealed; could not make definitions if God had not revealed himself

doctrine

focused around the human reflection on God's revelation; our putting into words what God has revealed so that we might know God better, love Him, and transmit what we know to future generations

cultural furniture

using own cultural words to describe things in Bible; not a Bible word; leaves what the Bible says together, not breaking it

Sabellianism

Father, Son, and Spirit are like different hats/ modes in which God shows himself

Docetism

Christ only appeared as a human being; thus, he is only a projection of God; did not really take on flesh

Adoptionism/ Ebionism

Christ was just a man; adopted by God as His special Son because of His goodness

Arianism

there was a time when He the Son was not (the Son is the greatest of all creatures)

homoiousios

of like essence (still a creature); breaking Scripture (only taking part of what it says)

homoousios

recognized full well that they were using their own cultural furniture, but they were dealing with the fact that the Bible is clear, saying that there is one God, in the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit

Nestorianism

focused on Christ's 2 natures so much that it made Him look like 2 different people (oil in water); touch but no real union - division, contrast

Apollinariansim

what we have in Jesus is a God-soul in a human body (chocolate milk); God puts on a man suit; a confusion of the two natures; no real salvation

Eutychianism

before incarnation, hypothetically 2 natures; once incarnation - one composite nature; the human nature is like a drop of wine in the ocean (crapple juice) - change

hypostatic union

a union of 2 natures in one person

Antony

the father of anchoritic monasticism (a father of monasticism); went to desert to show new kind of discipline

Ambrose

the person who had the middle position on the empire (empire is no longer the "bad guy," but it is not equal to the city of God); rebuked Theodosius; his preaching was influential in Augustine's conversion

Arius

Arianism

Athanasius

strongest opponent of Arius

Basil of Caesarea

noted that more needed to be said about the Holy Spirit; Council of Constantinople

Constantine

grew up in Roman Britain

Eusebius

happy with Constantine; fulfillment of bringing 2 great cultures together

Gregory of Nazianzus

friendly with Apollinarius, but rebuked him for wrong doctrine; "that which He does not assume, He does not heal"; Basil of Ceasarea's best friend

Leo of Rome

the tome

Pachomius

had been a Roman centurion (converted, then retired); show a kind of Christian discipline to the church at large; father of communal moasticism

privation

evil (creatures of good turn away from God) is not a thing in itself; it is a lack of good, a turning aside from good

grace

Augustine on salvation: key word:

ka'aba

primary sacred sight for Islam that Muhammad wanted totally for Islam

hijra

flight

creed, prayer, charity, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage

pillars of Islam

Qu'ran

recitation (directly from mouth of God through Muhammad)

jihad

struggle (infidels vs. faithful; in one's own life)

sunnis

concerned with following the way

shi'ites

focused its concern on caliph (blood-related to Muhammad); party of Ali

manorialism/ early feudalism

land

fealty/ allegiance

what you swear to be part of feudal arrangement; the way it works

Alaric

sacks Rome in 410 AD, Goth leader

Alcuin

led Carolingian Renaissance that Charlemagne desired concerning education

Benedict

Benedictines

Boniface

a Saxon influenced by Celtic faith; missionary to Germany

Charles Martel

Charlemagne's grandfather; Battle of Tours

Childeric III

deposed by Pepin; "the Stupid"

Clovis

brought the Franks to Christianity

Franks

Gaul

Justinian

greatest of Byzantine emperors

Lombards

taking major portion of Italy

Manichees

Augustine had battles with; dualist group; led Augustine to deal with question of good and evil (he used to be one)

Odovacar

Goth who deposed last Western Roman Emperor

Patrick

Ireland; Celt from Britain

Pelagius

emphasized human ability; Christ is more of an example to follow; no original sin; we save ourselves by being good

Pepin

Charlemagne's father; who should be king? the warrior leader; deposed Childeric III

Saxons

taking major portion of England

Theodoric

Goth who defeated Roman army contingent; said he bought peace to empire to pope, and that he'd be the new ruler of empire

Vandals

attacked Hippo (N. Africa)

Vikings

major group in the second era of Middle Ages who caused it to end with new crises; invaded and stayed

Visigoths

Spain

canon law

developing law of Middle Ages that dealt with life of clergy; regulated which sacraments to get you in right relationship so you can take the Eucharist: penance

1st Crusade

council of Clairmont; Urban II

4th Crusade

Constantinople

Lateran IV

sacrifice for forgiveness of sins

investiture

who invested episcopal authority; bishops swear to state; puttint onto infusion

motion, causality, degrees of perfection, design, contingency

"five ways" - Thomas Aquinas; discussion about if you work at it hard philosophically, 5 ways to recognize that there is one true God

sacerdotal

priestly mediation

sacrament

an outward and visible sign of invisible grace

scholasticism

a way of education in which logic is the key undergraduate concern

summa

large writing which logically explains any issue by bringing forth sum total of learning/ views on issue

Albert

Thomas Aquinas' teacher

Anselm

holds same Augustinian understanding of faith and reason

Averroes

translated works of Aristotle works into Latin; Spanish

Berno

first abbot of cluny; wanted feudal ties to be directly to pope; founding of Cluny monastery

Thomas Aquinas

the greatest of medieval scholastics

ad fonts

going back to the fountains (away from scholastic way to fountains); Renaissance

anfechtung

Luther's spiritual unease over God's righteousness

"catholic"

universal

Holy Roman Empire

centralization of nation states

curialism

papal authority

conciliarism

council authority

"Christ the mirror"

predestination viewed not as a spooky term; a comforting term that God is the one who initiates our salvation; if you find yourself a Christian who trusts in Chist, that's how you know you are one of the elect

evangelical

idea of speaking the good news

formal principle

sola scriptura

imputation

forgiveness and clothing; all the mediation we need from Christ; God imputes us with righteousness of Christ; we are given full forgiveness and counted righteous and are called to grow; good works flow from Christ's righteousness; works of gratitude

infusion

deprived of rigteousness; new habitus in baptism; operation/ cooperation (move to telos); "like known by like"

justitia

God's righteousness

material principle

sola gratia, sola fide, solo Christo

propitiation

the taking away of sins through death of substitute

protestant

political designation

Reformed

Calvinist

Anglican

Thomas Cranmer (1st Archbishop of Canterbury)

Anabaptist

Menno simons

the Renaissance

importance of rhetoric for education (moved the trivium; rhetoric over logic)

moral conjecture

the assurance understanding of the Middle Ages; could have basic pious belief that you were part of the people who were on their way to heaven

reform

moral reform

Reform

doctrinal reform

Biel

shows that although the infusion model is grace oriented, it can become more around cooperation; God will not deny grace to the one who does what lies within himself

Bradwardine

late medieval archbishop of Canterbury; critic of a lot of theology of salvation during his time; wrote The Cause of God against the Pelagians

Bucer

the reformer of city of Strasburg

Calvin

2nd generation reformer; systematized sola doctrines in the Institutes of the Christian Religion; part of Reformed branch

Erasmus

greatest of Renaissance leaders in North; critic - church was too superstitious, need a good heart piety, be moral, pray, read your Bible; piety of prayer, Bible reading, and being a good moral person

Farel

before Calvin at Geneva; convinces Calvin to stay in Geneva

Hus (Hussites)

pre-Reformation critic mostly in in church is not stressing Scripture enough and transubstantiation; _________ continued to be a vital force in Bohemia for years after his death, so joined Lutheran movement

Ignatius Loyola

Jesuits

Kolde

an example of the anxiety that late medieval people about salvation; wrote a catechism; gretest fear was death because he had no assurance

Luther

question about assurance

Staupitz

Luther's father confessor at Wittenburg; head of Luther's order (Augustinians); in a sense father of reformation because he told Luther to look to Christ when Luther was struggling

Waldensians

a medieval group who stood in dissent to overall church; made thier way to Piedmont, Italy (the Alps); joined in with Reformed movement

Wycliffe (Lollards)

pre-Reformation critic mostly in church is not stressing Scripture enough and transubstantiation; ________ had to go underground, but joined in with Protestant church of England

Zwingli

father of Reformed tradition; leader of Reformation in Zurich

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