AP Bio Exam Review

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218 terms


This is a high energy molecule that is not a polymer


This organic group is made up of C, H, and O only


This organic group contains C, H, O, and P


This molecule has the formula C6H12O6


What is the disaccharide formed from this reaction; glucose + glucose

Fatty acid

This molecule consists of long chains of carbons and hydrogens


This functional group has a carbon bonded to a hydroxide and the same carbon double bonded to an oxygen


What state are unsaturated fats in at room temperature

Triacylglycerol; Triglyceride

This molecule is formed by 3 fatty acids combined with a glycerol backbone


This molecule is highly amphipathic

Amino Acids

These make up proteins

Dehydration; Condensation

These are types of reactions for water

Peptide bond

This bond is made when the hydroxide of one amino acid binds with the ammonia of an adjacent amino acid

Covalent bond

A peptide bond is what type of bond


This process converts inorganic carbon to organic carbon

Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil

The three pyrimidine bases

contains one less oxygen atom

The difference between the sugars in DNA and RNA is that the sugar in DNA


What base pair does cytosine pair with

Rate of disappearance of the substrate

What can be used to determine the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions

non-competitive inhibitor

This binds to the allosteric site of an enzyme

Lowering the activation energy

Catalysts speed up chemical reactions by what

Exergonic; spontaneous

The hydrolysis of ATP is what kind of reaction (relating to energy)

ATP hydrolysis

An endergonic reaction may occur when coupled with what reactions

High heat of vaporization

This is why sweating cools down the body significantly

Ice has a larger volume than water

What does the crystalline structure of water do (relating to volume)

Hydrogen bond

What bond holds together base pairs in DNA

Phosphodiester bond

What bond found in a DNA molecule is the hardest to break


Drastic changes in salt concentration causes an enzyme to what

Reaction is at equilibrium

When the free energy change of a reaction is zero, it means what

donate H+ to H+ depleted solution

Buffers may help resist shifts in pH by what

Cell Membrane

What structure do prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells both have that surrounds the entire cell


This organelle stores the genetic material and has a double membrane


A large number of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing what

Golgi apparatus

This organelle packages and secretes substances


This organelle's function is to package hydrolytic enzymes to prevent destruction


This compartment takes up most of the volume in the plant cell

Small and hydrophobic

This kind of molecule passes through the cell membrane easiest without the help of transport proteins

Become turgid

What will happen to a plant cell when placed in a hypotonic solution

Ribosome synthesis

What is the main function of the nucleolus

Bad Surface Area/Volume ratio causes nutrient transport efficiency to decrease

Why do most cells not exceed a certain size limit


These structures are only found in animal cells

A protein that is bound to and spans the membrane

What is a transmembrane protein

Aquaporins in water transport

This mechanism used to transport water does not involve energy expenditure (not osmosis)

Having more ions on one side and less on another

What is an electrochemical gradient across a semi-permeable membrane


This organelle is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

This organelle is present in large amounts in liver cells


The cell wall in fungi is made up of this


This is a channel between plant cells


If a potato wedge was placed in a solution and gained weight, then the solution was what to the potato


These organelles detoxify free radicals in plant and animal cells

Gap junctions

These allow passage of nutrients between adjacent animal cells

0; Zero

What is the water potential of pure water

From less negative to more negative

In what way does water potential travel

A carrier protein or protein channel

What is needed for transport of a peptide signaling molecule passing through the cell membrane


This molecule causes the fluidity of the cell membrane to decrease at room temperature and increase at colder temperatures

Genetically similar

Daughter cells of mitosis are what to the mother cells of mitosis

Sperm; egg

Examples of gametes

G protein

This protein is activated by the receptor coupled to it

S phase of interphase

When is DNA usually replicated

Protein kinases

Proteins that transduce signals by phosphorylating other proteins

Opening and closing of ligand-gated ion channels

In cell signaling, how is the flow of specific ions regulated

Second messenger

cGMP is an example of one of these


This is programmed cell death

Transmembrane protein

The Tyr kinase receptor is an example of what

Proteins in nature

Receptor proteins are always what

Phosphorylation cascade

A signaling pathway that involves a series of kinases that get activated one after another is what


What is one of the required characteristics of a second messenger

Endoplasmic reticulum

The organelle where high levels of calcium ions are usually found

Signal amplification

The ability of protein kinases in a signaling pathway to be reused allows for what


The point on the chromosome where chromatids are attached


The activation of adenylyl cyclase leads to the increase in level of what

Receptor to the hormone

Not all cells will respond to a certain hormone that is released into the circulatory system because they lack what


The stage of mitosis when centromeres uncouple, sister chromatids separate, and the two new chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell


The stage of mitosis when microtubules attach to chromosomes which are centered at the equator of the cell


The stage of mitosis when the nuclear membrane fragments, microtubules extend to enter of the cell


This process occurs in the cytosol

Mitochondrial matrix

Where in the cell does Kreb's cycle occur

carbon dioxide

What is one of the by-products of pyruvate being converted to acetyl-CoA

ATP synthase

What enzyme produces ATP from ADP and Pi during chemiosmosis


Enzymes that produce NADH through redox reactions are known as what


This is a 3-carbon product that is formed as a result of glycolysis


The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain of respiration is what

Electron transport and chemiosmosis

Oxidative phosphorylation is made up of these two processes

Intermembrane space of the mitochondrion

In respiration the proton gradient is accumulated where as a result of electron transport


In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate does not enter the mitochondrion but gets converted into what

Non-cyclic photophosphorylation

In photosynthesis, NADPH is produced as a result of what process

Facilitated diffusion

The movement of H+ across the mitochondrial membrane, resulting in ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation is an example of what type of movement across the membrane

Thylakoid membrane

Chlorophyll molecules are located where in the chloroplasts

To break down carbohydrates to provide ATP for the cell

What is the purpose of cellular respiration in eukaryotic cells

Substrate-level phosphorylation

For each molecule of glucose, glycolysis yields 2 molecules of ATP by what

Longest; lowest

Red light in the VIS light has what length wavelength and what amount of energy (comparison)

Oxidative phosphorylation

Which stage of respiration DIRECTLY produces the greatest amount of ATP molecules

Regenerate NAD+, which is needed for glycolysis

What is the most important function of fermentation in eukaryotic cells


The product of Calvin cycle that is used to make sugars and other products is what

Calvin cycle

RUBISCO is an enzyme of what process

They are adapted to countering photorespiration

What is different about C4 plants compared to C3 plants in general


The chlorophyll known as P680 has its electron "holes" filled by electrons from what

Final electron acceptor

In our experiment 4B on photosynthesis, DPIP was used as a what


Glycolysis occurs in what part of the cell

Intermediate step

What process in respiration does NOT yield ATP

Alcohol fermentation

What process produces carbon dioxide

Electron transport

What process requires oxygen in respiration

Intermediate step

What process produces NADH

Produce high energy molecules for the Calvin cycle

What is the main function of photophosphorylation

Obligate aerobes

Cells that can only respire aerobically are known as what

Calvin cycle

What process occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast

They transfer light energy to the reaction center

What is the function of accessory pigments in photosynthesis


This high energy molecule is NOT produced by cyclic photophosphorylation


What functions as a carrier in an electron transport chain


This high-energy molecule is produced in the citric acid cycle

Intermembrane space of the mitochondrion

During electron transport of oxidative phosphorylation, a high concentration of protons is formed where in the cell


What is used in lactate fermentation


In animals, meiosis results in gametes, and fertilization results in what


What is used to describe the location of a gene along a chromosome

Haploid, and the chromosomes are composed of two chromatids

After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is what

Homologous chromosomes are separated

What happens at the conclusion of meiosis I


The characteristic of sepal shape in a flowering plant is controlled by one gene on Chr I and another two genes on Chr 4. Based on this information alone, the sepal shape trait can be described as what

DNA replication occurs before cell division begins

What has to happen before a cell can undergo mitosis or meiosis

Prophase I of meiosis

When does the chiasmata form

Synapsis of chromosomes

What happens to the chromosomes in meiosis that does not happen in mitosis

Independent assortment of chromosomes

What concept derived by Mendel results in the increase in genetic variability

It reshuffles genes between homologous chromosomes

What is the correct description of crossing over

Homologous chromosomes

What lines up on the equator of the cell in metaphase I of meiosis

Metaphase I

Which stage has homologous chromosomes being lined up on the equator of the cell

They are heterozygous

Two plants are crossed, resulting in offspring with a 3:1 ratio for a particular trait. This suggests what about the parents

Homologous chromosomes moving to opposite poles

What observation in the process of meiosis is most aptly correlated with the Law of Segregation derived by Mendel


How many genotypes of gametes can be derived from an AaBb parent


How many possible phenotypes (in offspring) can be derived from an AaBb x AaBb cross


How many possible genotypes (in offspring) can be derived from an AaBb x AaBb cross


What is the expected phenotypic ratio of the progeny of an AaBb x AaBb cross


In a cross AaBBCc x AaBbCc, what is the probability of producing the genotype AABBCC

Incomplete dominance

A certain flower color may be red, white, or pink. When a true-breeding red flower is crossed wit a true-breeding white flower, only pink flowers are obtained. This is an example of what


This is when one gene controls the expression of another gene


Cinnabar eyes is a sex-linked recessive characteristic in fruit flies. If a female having cinnabar eyes is crossed with a wild-type male, what percentage of the F1 males will have cinnabar eyes

The somatic cells of a normal female

Where is a Barr body found

They are found on the same chromosome

In a dihybrid cross between a double heterozygote with another double heterozygote (eg. SsTt x SsTt) a 3:1 phenotypic ratio results. This implies what about S and T

Females are circles, males are squares

On a pedigree chart, what symbolizes a female and what symbolizes a male


A woman who has a blood type B positive has a daughter who is type O positive and a son who is type B negative. What is the most likely genotype of the mother

Silent mutation

What is a change in DNA that does not lead to any change in the amino acid it codes for

Cytosine and Uracil

What are the two pyrimidines found in RNA

Non-pathogenic strain of streptococcus taking up pathogenic strain DNA and being transformed into a pathogenic strain

What is the critical observation in the Griffith experiment that showed the DNA was likely to be the genetic material

Adenine pairs with Thymine and Guanine pairs with Cytosine

What are the Watson-Crick base-pairing rules in double-stranded DNA

Phosphodiester bond

What bond holds together adjacent DNA molecules

Hydrogen bond

What bond holds together complementary bases


What would be the RNA transcript that arises from the DNA template: 5' GGTAAACCC 3'


What is a DNA sequence that RNA pol II recognizes during transcription initiation

Both hybrid (14N15N) DNA and light DNA (14N14N)

In the Meselson and Stahl experiment, using 15N medium and 14N medium, what were the findings after two rounds of replication

RNA polymerase

This enzyme works in transcription


True or false; the tRNA leaves the ribosome from the A site

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