Biology 9th grade

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95 terms · Biology

Biology

the study of life

steps to the scientific method (6)

1. identify the problem
2. make a hypothesis
3. create experiment
4. perform experiment
5. analyze data
6. publish lab

independant variable

what you change in the experiment that will test the subject

dependant variable

the change that is caused by the independant variable.

control

serves as a standard, or comparison.

scientific theory

system of ideas supported by evidence, and explains many observations

scientific laws

truths that are found across the universe.

opinion

bias point of view

What do microscopes do?

enlarge images of small objects

thermometers..

measure tempuratures

balances..

measure mass

measures length

meter (m)

measures mass

gram (g)

measures tempurature

farenhite/ celcius

measures volume

liter (l)

properties of life

metabolism, homostasias, reproduction, hereditary, evolution

metabolism

sum of all chemical reactions

homostasias

maintain stable internal conditions

reproduction

the sexual activity of conceiving and bearing offspring

hereditary

genetically transmitted or transmittable from parent to offspring

evolution

change over time

total magnification

ocular lens x objective lens

autotrophs

organisms that make their own food

heterotrophs

organisms that cannot make their own food

consumers

an organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.

primary consumer

An organism that eats producers

secondary consumer

An organism that eats primary consumers

decomposers

organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment

producer

an organism that makes its own food

predators

animals that prey on others

prey

animal hunted or caught for food

food chain

a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten

food web

(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains

tropic level

each step in a food chain or food web

population

a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area

community

a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other

echosystems

all the living and nonliving things in an environment including their interactions with each other

habitat

Place where an Organism lives

niche

physical use of habitat and function with ecological community

biotic

living things

abiotic

non living things

limiting factors

Conditions in the environment that put limits on where an organism can live

ecological succession

gradual change in living communities that follows a disturbance

biodiversity

the variety of species living within an ecosystem

atom

basic unit of matter

proton

positively charged particle

neutron

an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton

electron

an elementary particle with negative charge

atomic number

number of protons

atomic mass

protons + neutrons

ionic bond

Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

covalent bond

A shared pair of electrons., a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

organic compound

contains carbon

mixutre

2 or more substances mixed together in various portions

homogeneous mixture

a mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture

heterogenius mixture

can see different parts of the mixture (salt and pepper)

solutes

mixtures when both substances are evenly mixed

solvents

dissolves the solute

solute

dissolves in the solvent

ph scale

A range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic). 7 is neutral

reactant

a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction

product

a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction

enzymes

protein substances that speed up chemical reactions.

what effects ph?

tempurature

exothermic

gives off heat

endothermic

takes in heat c

cell

(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms

prokaryotic

having cells that lack membrane-bound nuclei

eukaryotic

having cells with 'good' or membrane-bound nuclei

what does a plant cell have that an animal cell does not?

a cell wall, chloroplast, central vacuole

what does an animal cell have that a plant cell does not?

vesicals, mitochondria

cell membrane

a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell

cytoplasm

a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

ribosomes

make proteins

nucleus

a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

vesicle

A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell.

rough ER

That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.

smooth ER

That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes. (lipid synthesis occurs here)

vacuole

a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell (plant cell

chloroplast

an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

flagella

tails that transport cells through surrounding enviroment

tissue

group of cells with similar functions

organs

structures that carry out specialized jobs within an organ system

lipid bilayer

structure of membrane, two sheets of lipid molcules with tails pointed inward, proteins embedded in bilayer (serve as channels) along with carbohydrate molecules (id markers - recognition)

selective permeability

a process in which a membrane allows some molecules to pass through while keeping others out

hypotonic

when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes

hypertonic

when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes

isotonic

(used of solutions) having the same or equal osmotic pressure

diffusion

process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated

osmosis

diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

active transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy

cellular respiration

process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen

ATP

(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

ADP

adenosine diphosphate; molecule that ATP becomes when it gives up one of its three phosphate groups

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