Proposed by Ben Franklin. Early attempt at forming a union of colonies that would unite English Colonists with mainland England.
Seven Years' War
Also known as French and Indian War, it was the first global war. The British were concerned about French forts being built in the Ohio Valley. Was Ended by the Treaty of Paris of 1763.
colonists of French decent
The Iroquois Confederacy
Also known as the League of Peace and Power, that originally consisted of five nations: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Onondaga, the Cayuga, and the Seneca. A sixth tribe, the Tuscarora, joined after the original five nations were formed. Those nations make up the Iroquois.
King Williams War
Also known as the War of the league of Augsburg, it lasted from 1689-1697. It was the third time the major European powers crushed the expansionist plans of King Louis XIV of France.
Queen Anne's War and the Treaty of Utrecht
Queen Anne's War is also known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Louis IX wanted to rule over France and Spain. This lead to the war because England would be next and they wouldn't be as strong as Spain and France. This lead to the Treaty of Utrecht, which said that no French monarch would also be the monarch of Spain, put Austrian monarch in Spain. This reduced Spain's power, causing them to become a second rate power.
King George's War
This was also known as the War of the Austrian Succession. It was the first time British troops were sent to America. The colonials took Louisburg and in the end the British gave them Louisburg back and French gave them a large portion of India with the Treaty of AIX-LA-CHAPELLE.
George Washington and Fort Necessity
George Washington was the first president of the U.S., but before then he was an army general. He built Fort Necessity, which was a crude stockade. After Virginia's unsuccessful attack the French counter attacked with an assault to Fort Necessity, trapping Washington and his soldiers inside. After a third of his soldiers died, Washington surrendered.
This fort was not far from Fort Necessity. It was under the control of the French. This fort was the largest outpost the French were building in what is now Pittsburg.
When British began forcibly enlisting colonists in the army and navy, this became known as impressment.
He was the first English secretary of state who would later become the prime minister. He brought the war fully under British control, planning the military strategies, appointing the commander, etc.
Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe
Two brilliant English generals who captured the fortress at Louisburg in July of 1758
Marquis de Montcalm
- He and his army were attacked by General Wolfe and his larger forces. Both generals were killed in the battle.
The battle of Quebec was the fall of Quebec on September 13, 1959. It marked the end of the American phase of the war.
Peace of Paris of 1763
This happened when the French gave some land to Great Britain which was some of the West Indian Islands. They gave New Orleans and their claims west of the Mississippi to Spain. Spanish Florida went to Britain.
King George III
When the Anglo-American relations came about, the accession of King George III turned the country into turmoil. He wanted to reinstate the power of the monarchy so he brought in a very unstable group into power to replace the Whigs. He also suffered from mental disease.
became prime minister in 1763, and the colonists didn't like him because he believed that the colonists should have to pay a part of defending and administering the empire and to also obey the laws.
When the French were defeated, frontiersmen began to move out into the Upper Ohio Valley. The chief of the Ottawa decided to strike back. When the British realized that this could end up in a fight they decided to forbid settlers from going beyond the mountains.
The Proclamation of 1763
The British decided to forbid the settlers from moving beyond the mountains so a conflict wouldn't start with the Indians. This proclamation was not effective because the British still disobeyed the rules.
The Mutiny Act of 1765
The colonists were required to help provision and maintain the army under this act. British ships controlled the sea to search for smugglers.
The Sugar Act of 1764
Raised the taxes on sugar while lowering the tax on molasses. It also established new vice-admiralty courts in America to try accused smugglers.
The Currency Act of 1764
Required that the colonial assembles stop issuing paper money.
The Stamp Act of 1765
Imposed a tax on every printed document in the colonies, it was a clear attempt by the England to raise revenue in the colonies without the consent of the colonial assemblies.
The paxton Boys
In 1764, a band of Pennsylvania frontiersmen descended on Philadelphia to demand tax relief and financial support for their defense against Indians.
This man made a dramatic speech to the House of Burgesses in May 1765 concluding with a vague prediction that if the policies George III had put in place were not revised, George III might lose his head like earlier Tyrants had done. To follow up his statement he proposed a set of resolutions.
The resolutions that Patrick Henry had come up with were printed and circulated under this title.
Persuaded his fellow members of the colonial assembly to call an intercolonial congress to take action against the stamp act. The group was called the stamp act conference; they met in October 1765 in New York, with delegates from 9 colonies. They created a petition to the British government which stated that the colonies could rightfully be taxed except through their own provincial assembles.
Sons of Liberty
- In the summer of 1765, mobs were rising up in several colonial cities against the Stamp Act. The largest of these groups were the sons of liberty, this mob attacked supposedly pro-British aristocrats and terrorized the stamp agents and burnt stamps.
Originally opposed to the passage of the Stamp Act, Hutchinson felt obliged to support it once it became a law; his elegant house was pillaged and virtually destroyed by the sons of liberty.
This act confirmed the parliamentary authority over the colonies "in all cases whatsoever". Many Americans didn't pay attention to this act because they were too happy with the Stamp Act being repealed.
Charles Townshend and the Townshend Duties
He became the leader while Lord Chatham was incapacitated with his mental illness. He had to deal with colonial grievances left over from the Grenville Ministry. He applied new taxes to many things imported from England like lead, paint, paper, and tea.
Samuel Adams and Committee of Correspondence
Samuel Adams proposed the idea of a creation of the "committee of correspondence" to publicize the grievances against England.
Virtual and Actual Representation
Colonies and Ireland were represented in Parliament even though they didn't get to elect their representatives. This was the theory of virtual representation. Americans thought thought that they should be able to elect their representative which came to be known as the theory of actual representation.
In 1722, angry residents of Rhode Island boarded the British schooner Gaspee, to set on fire and sink it. This was a way to keep the spirit of resistance alive
British East Indea Tea Co. and the Tea Act of 1773
- The British East India Tea Company was on the verge of bankruptcy so the government passed the Tea Act which allowed the company to export their stock directly to the colonies without paying taxes. This allowed the company to have a monopoly.
Daugeters of Liberty
This was an organization of women who decided to boycott against the tea and said "rather than freedom, we'll part with out tea".
The Boston Tea Party
On December 16, 1773, three companies of fifty men each, went aboard three ships, broke open the tea chests, and threw them into the harbor. This was a domino effect that was soon copied by other seaports.
The Coercive Act of 1774
Also known as the Intolerable Acts. Parliament fought back the Boston Tea Party with four acts which were the closing of the port of Boston, permitting royal officers to be tried by other colonies or in England, and providing for quartering of troops by the colonists.
First Continental Congress
The first continental congress met in Philadelphia in 1774. This congress included all the colonies except Georgia. They made five important decisions. They rejected a plan for colonial union under British control, they addressed a moderate statement of grievance against the king, approved a series of resolutions, agreed to a series of boycotts and they agreed to meet again the next spring.
This act extended the boundaries of Quebec to include the French communities between the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
Propositions made to the colonies like Lord North proposing to the colonies that they could tax themselves at Parliament's demand. But this proposition was a little too late. It arrived in North America right after the war was started.
Lexington and Concord
When the British decided to attack Lexington, they thought the Americans didn't know but they were being watch closely and when the British came to attack the Americans were already ready to fight back and they won. When the British arrived at Concord, most of the powder supply had been moved out by the Americans.
William Dawes and Paul Revere
These were the two horsemen that were watching the British and they rode all the way to Lexington to warn that the British were coming.